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Studies on Some Biological and Physicochemical Parameters of Rock Pool Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kaduna State, Nigeria

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– Studies on Some Biological and Physicochemical Parameters of Rock Pool Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kaduna State, Nigeria –


Entomological surveys were conducted to determine the biological and physicochemical parameters influencing mosquito breeding in rock pools on inselbergs in Kaduna State.
Available rock pools were searched on the inselbergs fortnightly between June and October 2013 in 21 settlements distributed in 7 Local Government Areas.

This covered theState vegetation from the Guinea Savanna to SudanSavanna.A total of 368 rock pools were sampled for mosquito larvaeusing soup ladle dippers (0.105L) from 269 (69.7%) rock pools harboring mosquito larvae.
Biological (microinvertebrates, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, algae, and vertebrates) and physicochemical (depth, surface area, distances to adjoining pools, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, nitrate, and alkalinity) parameters of the pools were determined.
Polymerase Chain Reaction was used for the identification of mosquito species of Anopheles Gambians.s. Of the 31,726 mosquito larvae collected, thirteen species in three mosquito genera(Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex) including Ae.
vittatus (95.71%),An. arabiensis (0.01%), An. gambiae s.s. (0.1%), An. longipalpis (0.0%), An. pretoriensis (0.0%), An. rufipes (0.02%), Cx. albiventris (0.84%), Cx. horridus (0.33%)Cx. macfiei (0.76%), Cx. perfidiosus (1.65%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.44%), Cx. simpsoni (0.0%) and Cx. tigripes (0.0%) bred in rock pools.
Aedes vittatuswas the most dominant mosquito encountered in all the 21 sampling locations. PCR–based assay revealed 41.6% amplification of the An. gambiaecomplex sample with 38.9% populations belonging to An.gambiae s.s.
whilst the remaining 2.6% were An. arabiensis. Up to 58.4% of the An. gambiae complex could not be identified through PCR even after three runs.


Background of Study
Mosquitoes are probably the most notoriously undesirable arthropods with respect to their ability to transmit pathogens that cause human diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, filariasis, viral encephalitides, and other deadly diseases.
In several parts of the world, the indirect effect of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases accounted for more deaths as well as reduced production following work losses (Rueda, 2008).
The emergence of new vector-borne disease entities and the resurgence of old ones are caused by several factors, which are ecological changes that increase vector densities, such as climate, immunity status of humans, human and potential vector population densities, and the presence of suitable reservoir amongst others (Adebote et al., 2006). T
The increases in economic activities, tourism and human migration have led to more cases of the movement of both disease vectors and the pathogens they carry thereby increasing the biodiversity of mosquitoes around the world (Manguin and Boete, 2010).
The diversity of mosquito breeding environments stems from innate preferences shown by different taxa to the locations and conditions of various aquatic habitats (Adebote et al.,2 008).
Oviposition preferences of adult females and the ability of immature stages of mosquitoes to adapt to both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of a given aquatic habitat determine the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes (Dejenie et al., 2002).


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