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Team Approach to the Management of Change in the Nigerian Manufacturing Organizations: Strategies, Challenges and Prospects

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Team Approach to the Management of Change in the Nigerian Manufacturing Organizations: Strategies, Challenges and Prospects.

ABSTRACT

This study took a critical look at the activities of manufacturing organizations in the area of Teams Approach to the Management of Change in Nigerian manufacturing organizations, with three manufacturing organizations from southern part of Nigeria as the focal point for the study.

The study determined  if team approach to change management would bring about an increase in productivity, and attempted to ascertain if there was a significant relationship between team approach to management of change and organizational ability to survive.

The study also sought to ascertain the strategies, challenges and prospects of team approach to change management and to ascertain if managerial roles to team approach to change  management  compared favourably with Mintzberg’s model on managerial roles.

The  study  was carried out using survey design. Both primary  and  secondary  data  were utilized for the study. A sample size of 389 was used for the  study.  The research instruments employed was structured questionnaire and an interview.

The descriptive statistics  of  simple  percentage,  tables,  means,  frequencies and standard deviation were employed to analyze the  data,  while  the  inferential statistics of Z-test was used  to  test the first,  second, third, fourth  and sixth hypotheses, while the fifth hypothesis was tested with Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient at alpha level set at 0.05.

The  findings  of the study among others revealed that the manufacturing organizations studied agreed that team approach to change management brought about increased in productivity in the sampled organizations.

This was true with a calculated Z value of 15.933 which was greater than the table Z  value of 1.645  and  that there was a high positive relationship between the organizational ability to survive and team approach.

This was true at a sample mean of 4.420, sample standard deviation of 0.944 and calculated Z score of 29.346. It was found out among others that the strategies adopted to change management were building self-managed teams/human resources strategy, cost reduction strategy.

The finding also revealed that team approach ushers good prospects in the area of improved performance /productivity, coordination of department, plans and polices.

It was recommended that the strategic managers of the manufacturing organizations should share their perception, knowledge and objectives with those affected by change.

This can involve a major  and  expensive programme of training, communication, and motivation and should give priority to the role of building effective teams and this should be backed by policy.

Conclusively, every business needs to have a strategy and this strategy must be related to changing environmental conditions in order to survive  and  maintain growth, and be ready to take maximum advantage of the challenges and opportunities presented.

Two models were developed. One on pressure for change showing forces of change in manufacturing organizations, and the other on  team approach processes to change management indicating processes to  be adopted  in change management.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – -i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Approval. – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – -iv
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – -v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – -vii.
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – -viii.
Lists of Tables – – – – – – – – –

List of Figures – – – – – – – – – -xvi.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study – – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – -4
1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – -6
1.4 Research questions – – – – – – -7
1.5 Research hypotheses – – – – – – -8
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – -9
1.7 Delimitations of the study – – – – – -10
1.8 Limitation of the study – – – – – – -10
1.9 Operational definition of terms – – – – – -11
References – – – – – – – – – 12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – -13
2.2 Concept of change – – – – – – – -13
2.2.1 The Forces of change in manufacturing organizations – – -16
2.2.2 Kinds of change – – – – – – – -17
2.2.3 Identifying the need for change – – – – – -18
2.3 Theoretical framework – – – – – – -21
2.4 Mintzberg’s managerial role – – – – – – -26
2.5 Model theory – – – – – – – -30
2.6. Planning and implementation to change – – – – -32
2.6.1 Resistance to change – – – – – – – -34
2.6.2 Organizational resistance – – – – – -36
2.6.3 Category of behaviour – – – – – – -37
2.6.4 Change agents – – – – – – – -40
2.7 Strategies for team approach to change management- – – -40
2.7.1 Method of strategy formulation in organizations – – – -42
2.7.2 The strategy planning process – – – – – -43
2.7.3 The role of managers in strategy implementation – – – -47
2.7.4 Human resources strategy – – – – – – -51
2.8 Managing organizational change – – – – – -55
2.8.1 Managing resistance – – – – – – – -57
2.9 Concept of team approach to change management – – – -59
2.9.1 Reasons for the formation of teams – – – – – -59
2.9.2 Types of teams – – – – – – – -61
2.9.3 Team cohesion – – – – – – – -62
2.9.4 Skills required for team members – – – – – -64
2.10 Leadership in of team – – – – – – – -65
2.11 Determinant of team effectiveness – – – – – -69
2.12 Organizational survival – – – – – – -74
2.12.1 Common factors in organizations – – – – – -75
2.12.2 Types of Organizations – – – – – – -76
2.12.3 Concept of group in management of organizational change – – -79
2.12.4 Definition of group – – – – – – – -82
2.12.5 Types of groups – – – – – – – -83
2.12.6 Empirical study of groups working in self-regulation and autonomy -84
2.12.7 Employee empowerment and teamworking – – – – -86
2.13 Concept of delegation of decision making – – – – -87

2.13.1 Delegation process – – – – — – – 89
2.14 Challenges of team approach to change management – – -90
2.15 Prospects of team approach to management of change – – -91
2.16 An Overview of the manufacturing sector of the Nigerian economy -96
2.16.1 Profile of the selected organizations – – – – – -97
2.17 Summary of literature review – -102

References – – – – – – — – 105

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – -113
3.2 Research design – – – – – – – -113
3.3 Sources of data – – – – – – – -113
3.4 Area of study – – – – – – – – -114
3.5 Population of the study – – – – – – -114
3.6 Sample size determination – – – – – – -115
3.7 Sampling selection strategy – – – – – – -117
3.8 Research instrument – – – – – – – -117
3.9 Data collection procedure – – – – – – -118
3.10 Validity of research instrument – – – – – -118
3.11 Reliability of research instrument – – – – – -118
3.12 Procedure for data analysis / statistical techniques – – – -121
References – – – – – – – — 122

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – -123
4.2 Analysis of response rate – – – – – – -123
4.3 Profile data analysis – – – – – – – -124
4.4 Data analysis – – – – – – – – -125
4.5 Analysis of the likert scales responses – – – – -132
4.6 Hypotheses testing – – – – – – – -141
4.8 Model analysis – – – – – – – -147
4.9 Discussion on findings – – – – – – -147
References – – – – – – – – – -157

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, CONTRIBUTION AND FUTURE SCOPE

5.1 Summary of major findings – – – – – – -158
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – -161
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – -162
5.4 Contributions to knowledge. – – – – – – -164
5.4.1 Pressure for change management – – – – – -165
5.4.2 Team approach processes to change management – – – -168
5.5 Future scope – – – – – – – – -172
Bibliography – – – – — – – — 173
APPENDIX I Questionnaire – – – – — 182
APPENDIX II Oral Interview- – – – — 194

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Work is a group-based activity and if organization is to function effectively it requires good teamwork. Katzenback and Smith (1993) define a team as a small number of people with complementary skills who work toward common goals for  which  they hold themselves mutually accountable.

A team depends on its  own  members  to provide leadership and direction. Teams can also be organized as departments.

Bailey-Scudamore, (1991) opine that many organizations  face a  volatile environment in which change is nearly constant and if they are to survive and prosper, they need to adapt to change quickly and effectively.

Human resources are  almost always at the  heart of an effective response system; this is because effective leaders work with subordinates and co-workers to create visions and strategies as means to achieve the organization’s goals.

Rapid change can put employee under a great deal of stress, and unless the organization develops support mechanisms to keep it manageable both the firm and employees may pay a heavy price (Gomez-Mejia, et al, 2001).

The question of organizational change is central to all kinds of organizations. It is the way in which organizations thrive, grow and stabilize rather than wither and decline.

REFERENCES 

Adebayo, Y. (2006) Essentials of Human Resources Management, Benin City, Otoghagua (Nigeria) Enterprises.
Agbonifoh,  B.A.  (2008)  “The Strategy Management” in Strategic Management, Benin City, Mindex Publisher Company Limited.
Akpala, A. (1990) Management: An Introduction and the Nigerian Perspective, Department of Management, Enugu, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus.
Alderfer, T. (1977) The Change, the Challenge for Management, London,  McGraw- Hill Book Company Limited.
Allahan, I. Johnson, R.A and Ansoff, H. I. (1995) Corporate Strategy, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Anao,  A.  R.,  and  Osaze,  B. E. (1989)        Managerial Finance, Benin City, Uniben Press.

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