The Biochemical Effects of Cussonia Arborea Root Bark Extract in Alloxan- : Current School News

The Biochemical Effects of Cussonia Arborea Root Bark Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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The Biochemical Effects of Cussonia Arborea Root Bark Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemic condition resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It is a growing public health concern worldwide affecting humans and animals.

Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of the ailment have serious side effects, complicated mode of intake and are costly. Literature search revealed that Cussonia arborea is used folklorically in the management of Diabetes mellitus.

The aim of this study is to isolate, characterize and elucidate the active principle responsible for its hypoglycaemic activity using alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The root bark of C. arborea (2 kg) was extracted with 80% methanol by cold maceration method.

Acute toxicity study was done in 35 rats assigned into 7 groups of 5 rats per group. Groups 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6 rats were orally administered with graded doses (500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 mg/kg bw) of the extract respectively.

The rats in group 7 received 10 ml/kg distilled water (DW) to serve as negative control group.

They were observed closely for 48 hours for signs of toxicity. Assessment of hypoglycemic activities of the extract was done using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), acute and chronic antidiabetic studies.

In OGTT, 30 rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 rats received 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw of the extract respectively while groups 4 and 5 rats received 2 mg/kg bw glibenclamide and 10 ml/kg DW respectively after 18 h fasting and prior to 2000 mg/kg of glucose load.

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes is a complex and a multifarious group of metabolic disorders that disturbs the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein (Kahn and Shechter, 1991; Bliss, 2000). It is characterized by increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels.

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or reduced sensitivity of the tissues to insulin action or both (Lanza et al., 2001). It is a disease characterized by inability to regulate blood glucose as a result of relative or absolute deficiency in insulin.

This results to hyperglycemia often accompanied by glycosuria, polydipsia and polyuria (Celik et al.,2002) Besides hyperglycaemia, several other factors like hyperlipidaemia and enhanced  oxidative stress play a major role in diabetes pathogenesis.

The disease is progressive and is associated with high risk of complication (Dewanjee et al., 2008). It is one of the most common endocrine diseases and has a prevalence rate varying from 1- 50% (King and Rewers, 1993).

The term “Diabetes Mellitus” is derived from the Greek words dia (through), bainein (to go) and diabetes literally means pass through. The disease causes loss of weight as if the body mass is passed through the urine.

Although it was known for centuries that the urine of patients with diabetes was sweet, it was not until 1674 that the physician named Willis coined the term Diabetes mellitus (from the Greek word for honey) (Vasudevan and Kumari, 2005.

REFERENCES

Aba PE, Asuzu IU, Odo RI (2014) Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of Cussonia arborea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats; Journal of Comp. Clin. Pathol. 23:451-458

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Adler AI, Stratton IM, Niel HA (2000) Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study BMJ 321: 412-419

Agabegi ED, Agabegi SS (2008) Step up to Medicine (step-up series) Hagertwon MD: Lippincott Williams and WIlins ISBN 0-7817-7153-6. Pp71

Agerso H, Jensen LB, Elbrond B, Rolan P, Zdravkovic M (2002) The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of NN 2211, a new long-acting GLP-1 derivative, in healthy men Diabetologia 45: 195- 202

Ahmed MS, Reid K, Khardori N (2008) Respiratory infections in diabetes: reviewing the risk and challenges. Journal of respiratory disease 4 (1): 82-85

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