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The Design of an On-Chip Silicon Photonic Diode

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The Design of an On-Chip Silicon Photonic Diode.

ABSTRACT

This work presents numerical calculation of electromagnetic waves in unidirectional on-chip silicon optical diodes.

An original optical diode, designed by Wang et. al. [Opt. Express. 19, 26948-26955 (2011)], is based on breaking of spatial inversion symmetry and the directional band gap difference of two 2D photonic crystals comprising a hetero-junction structure.

The dimensions of our structure are however different from those of Wang et. al. The electromagnetic waves in the diode obey the Maxwell’s equations which were solved with appropriate boundary conditions using the finite difference time domain as implemented in the MEEP software. MEEP is an acronym for M.I.T.

Electromagnetic Equation Propagation. Our solutions show the existence of a distinct unidirectional isolation effect in the designed hetero-junction slab.

The band structures for the lowest frequency mode of the transverse electric fields in the bulk of each of the 2D crystals comprising the hetero- junctions were also determined by solving the wave equation in frequency space.

The MPB (M.I.T Photonic Bands) software was used. The band structures reveal directional band gaps which are responsible for the optical isolation property of the composite hetero-junction.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES …….. VI
CHAPTER 1 …………. 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION …….. 1
1.2 OVERVIEW OF THE THESIS … 4

CHAPTER 2

2.1 BANDGAP …… 5
2.2 THE SIZE OF THE BAND GAP …….. 9
2.3 SIGNAL CONTRAST (S) ….. 11
2.4 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS ….. 12
2.5 MEEP ………… 12
2.6 MPB ……. 13
2.7 UNITS ……….. 13
2.8 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS …. 13

Chapter 3

3.1 Maxwell’s Equations in two dimensions………. 16
3.2 Calculation of the Transmission Coefficient… 19
3.3 Calculation of the photonic band structure …… 20

Chapter 4

4.1 Results and Discussions …. 23
4.2 Conclusion …….. 32
4.3 Recommendation .32
Appendix …33

INTRODUCTION

Just like an electrical diode which allows current to flow in one direction only, a photonic diode allows light to propagate in one direction but blocks counter propagating photons.

Why photonic diode? We are living in the information age where there is incessant clamor for faster information processing, more efficient telecommunication, miniaturization of electrical appliances for easy mobility, and availability of quantum computer for scientific purposes.

These “basic” needs highlighted above can only be met in the realm of photonics. That is, there is a need to migrate from the use of electrical circuits, which formed the backbone of our information age, in our designs to opto-electrical circuit, the future of our quantum computers.

In other words, imagine a world where electrons, which are the active carrier of signal in this age, are replaced with photons. Certainly there would be accelerated growth in information processing, telecommunication, etc.

For the new generation of circuits to be functional, there is a need to begin the design of the corresponding electrical circuit components for photonic circuits.

One of these components is a diode; in the new case, it is the photonic diode. The successful implementation of this component would serves as a platform for the design of upcoming integrated circuits.

Over the years, various schemes have been proposed to construct compact and highly efficient all-optical diodes. Some of the schemes that have been proposed cannot be implemented on a silicon chip because either they require magneto-optical materials or strong magnetic field.

We are all aware of the consequence of using magnetic field in systems like computers.

REFERENCES

M. Scalora, J.P. Dowling, C.M. Bowden, M.J. Bloemer, Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994) 2023.

Gallo, G. Assanto, K.R. Parameswaran, M.M. Fejer, Applied Physics Letters 79 (2001) 314.

M.W. Feise, I.V. Shadrivov, Y.S. Kivshar, Physical Review E 71 (2005) 037602.

Philip, M. Anija, C.S. Yelleswarapu, D.V.G.L.N. Rao, Applied Physics Letters 91 (2007) 141118.

S.F. Mingaleev, Y.S. Kivshar, Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics 19 (2002) 2241.

X.S. Lin, W.Q. Wu, H. Zhou, K.F. Zhou, S. Lan, Optics Express 14 (2006) 2429.

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