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The Diversity of Fungi from Potting Soil

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The Diversity of Fungi from Potting Soil.

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to determine THE DIVERSITY OF FUNGI FROM POTTING SOIL. Five samples were collected for the study from different sites.

Potting soil from corn flower was collected from Okigwe road flower shop, potting soil from Tuggai was collected from Port Harcourt road flower shop.

Potting soil from Ghana papper was collected from Egbeada Housing Estate off  Orlu road flower shop, potting soil from Elephant foot was collected at Graceland Estate, off Ontisha road flower shop, sandy soil used as control was collected from Imo State University premises.

All samples were collected in Owerri, capital of Imo State. The analysis carried out in the soil samples showed different diversity of fungi. Five species of fungi were isolated from all samples which are Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., Penicillum spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp. of these species present, Rhizopus spp., and Mucor spp. occurred more.

The control sample (Sandy soil), yielded no growth on of fungi on yeast extract agar. Fungi plays both detrimental and good roles on soil.

 INTRODUCTION

Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is a natural body called the pedosphere which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth’s atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil.

Soil is called the Skin of the Earth (Miller and Austin, 1953) and interfaces with lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ‘ground stone’.

Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals (the soil matrix) and organic matter, as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution) (Voroney et al., 2015). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases (McCarthy and David, 2006).

Soil is a product of the influence of the climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and its parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time.

Soil continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness soil has been considered as an ecosystem by soil ecologists (Ponge and Jean-Francois, 2015).

Most soils have a dry bulk density (density of soil taking into account voids when dry) between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3.

Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic (Buol et al., 1973), although fossilized soils are preserved from as far back as the Archean.

Soil science has two basic branches of study: edaphology and pedology. Edaphology is concerned with the influence of soils on living things.

Pedology is focused on the formation, description (morphology), and classification of soils in their natural environment. In engineering terms, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material that lies above the ‘solid geology’. Soil is commonly referred to as “earth” or “dirt”; technically, the term “dirt” should be restricted to displaced soil.

REFERENCES

Alexander, Paul, clerk, Kummerer; 1977, 1996, 2004.Detection of an uncultured predominant bacillus in Dutch grassland soils. 64, 4588-4590.

Brown, R. B. (September 2003). “Soil Texture” (PDF). Fact Sheet SL-29. University of Florida, Institute of   Food and Agricultural Sciences.        Retrieved 8 July 2008.

Buol, S. W.; Hole, F. D.; McCracken, R. J. (1973). Soil Genesis and Classification (1st ed.). Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 0-8138-1460-X.

Comis, Don (September 2002). “Glomalin: Hiding Place for a Third of the World’s      Stored Soil Carbon”. Agricultural Research. United States Department of    Agriculture Agricultural Research Service: 4–7.

Dighton, J., H.E.Jones, C.H.Robinson, and Beckett, J. 1997.The role of abiotic   factors, cultivation practices and soil fauna in the dispersal of genetically        modified microorganisms in soils. Appl. Soil Ecol. 5, 109 -131.

Filion Cassel, D.K., and Wollum, A.G., 1999. Effects of soil samplesize and        included root and wood on bulk-density in forested soils.Soil Sci. Soc. Am.           J. 45, 135 138.

Gallardo, A., J.J.Rodriguez-Saucedo, F.Covelo and Fernandez-Ales, R., 2000. Soil       nitrogen heterogeneity in a Dehesa ecosystem.Plant Soil 222, 71 82.

George, G.W., and Cochran, W.G.1989. Statistical Methods. The Iowa State        University Press, Ames, IA.Torsvik, V., J.Golsoyr and Daae, F. 1990. High      diversity in DNA of soil bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 782 787.

Green, D.S. 2004. Describing condition-specific determinants of competition in   boreal and sub-boreal mixedwood stands. For. Chron. 80(6):736–742.

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