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The Effect of Contaminant on the Flow of Water Based Mud (PDF)


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The Effect of Contaminant on the Flow of Water Based Mud

INTRODUCTION

The drilling of oil and gas well is a high risk and challenging venture with some associated problems. Despite the challenges, Wells are still being drilled to meet up with the escalating demand for oil and gas.

It is the aim of every field operator to get the oil or gas from the reservoir rock to the surface production facilities in a safe and cost effective way thereby maximize profit by reducing the cost of drilling the required number of wells to drain the reservoir fluid.

Drilling mud is very important to both rotary and directional drilling processes: Although most oil and gas wells drilled nowadays use rotary drilling technique.

Without drilling muds and their additives, corporations would find it difficult if not impossible to drill for oil and gas and we would hardly have any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. Basically,

drilling mud is a mixture of water, clays, special minerals and chemicals called additives. Drilling mud can also be in non-aqueous form usually called oil­ based mud (OHM) and in gaseous phase called gaseous drilling fluid, in which a wide range of gases can be used.

A successful drilling operation requires enhanced quality of drilling mud with well formulated properties that will enable them to perform creditably during drilling operations.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page……………………………………………………………….       i

Declaration………………………………………………………………      ii

Certification……………………………………………………………..      iii

Table of Content…………………………………………………………     iv

List of Tables…………………………………………………………….     v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction………………………………………………………..    1

1.1     Background of Study………………………………………………   1

1.2     Function of a Drilling Mud…………………………………………  2

1.3     Drilling Muds Compositions……………………………………….. 3

1.4     Drilling Mud Contaminant………………………………………….  4

1.4.1  Salt Contamination………………………………………………….  5

1.4.2  Carbonate/Bicarbonate Contamination…………………………….. 5

1.4.3  Anhydrite-Gypsum Contamination………………………………….         6

1.4.4  Cement Contamination……………………………………………… 6

1.4.5  Calcium/Magnesium Contamination……………………………….  7

1.5     Statement of Problem……………………………………………….. 7

1.6     Objective of Study…………………………………………………..  8

1.7     Significance of Study………………………………………………..  8

1.8     Scope of Study………………………………………………………. 9

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review………………………………………………………….   10

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and Methods…………………………………………………….. 15

3.1     Methods……………………………………………………………… 15

3.2     Equipment…………………………………………………………… 16

3.3     Materials…………………………………………………………….. 16

References……………………………………………………………. 20


REFERENCE

Ali K., Vipulanandan C., Richardson D. (2013): Salt (NaCl) contamination of the resistivity and plastic viscosity of bentonite drilling mud, proceedings   of the center for innovative grouting materials and technology (CIGMAT) Conference & Exhibition.

APT RP13B-l. (2004): Recommended Practice [or Field Testing Water-Based Drilling Fluids, Third Edition.

API SPEC 13-A. (2011): Specification for Drilling-Fluid Materials, Seventeenth  Edition.

Baker Hughes INTEQ. (1995): “Drilling Fluids and Hydraulics”, Drilling  Engineering Workbook Series.

Basirat B, Vipulanandan C., Richardson D. (2013): Proceedings of THC-IT Conference & Ehibition.

Bourgogne, A.T. (1996): “Applied Drilling Engineering”, SPE Textbook Series,  Volume 2, Richardson.

Carney, L.L., and Guven, N. (1980): Investigation of Changes in the Structure of Clays During Hydrothermal Study of Drilling Fluids, Journal of  Petroleum Technology.

Carney, L.L., and Meyer, R.L. (1976): A New Approach to High Temperature Drilling Fluids, Proceedings, 51 st Annual Fall Meeting of Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans.

Carney, L.L., Guven, N., and McGrew, G.T. (1982): Investigation of High­  Temperature Fluid Loss Control Agents in Geothermal Drilling Fluids, Proceedings, California Regional Meeting, San Francisco.

Fosse, S. W., Tina, M., Frigand, 1. A., and Crawshaw, J. P. (2000): “Viscous­ Pill Design Methodology Leads to Increased Cement Plug Success Rate; Application and Case Studies from Southern Algeria”, SPE 62752          presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, Kuala  Lumpur, Malaysia.

Guven, N., Panfill, p.J. and Carney, L.L. (1988): “Comparative Rheology of     Water Based Drilling Fluids With Various Clays”. Conference  Proceedings of International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Tianjin,        China, 1988.

Hassiba, KJ. and Amani, M. (2013): The Effect of Salinity on the Rheological   Properties of Water Based Mud under High Pressures and Temperatures   for Drilling Offshore and Deep Wells Earth Science Research; Vol. 2, l.

Hillscher, L.W. and Clements, W.R. (1982): “High-Temperature Drilling Fluid for Geothermal and Deep Sensitive Formations”. Conference Proceedings  of California Regional Meeting, San Francisco.

Husssain H. Al-Kayiem et al. (2010): Simulation of the Cuttings Cleaning  During the Drilling Operation. Ameican Journal of Applied Science 7(6),  p 800-806.

Jamal asser, Anna Jesil, Tariq Mohiuddin, Majid Al Ruqeshi, Geetha Davi,       Shahjahan Mohataram (2013): Experimental Investigation of Drilling    Fluid Performance as Nanoparticles. World Journal of Nano Science and      Engineering, 2013, 3, 57 -6l.

Kumapayi Yomi, Bello Kelani, Adekomaya Olufcmi Akintola Abidemi, Dala    Joshua, Mohammed Ismail, Olafuyi Olakckan (2014): Investigating the       Effects of Contaminants on the performance of Oil Based Inverted       Emulsion Drilling Fluid, Petroleum Technology Development Journal. Vol. 2, pp 60-74.

Magcobar, D. (1997): Drilling Fluid Engineering Manual. M-I L.L.C.

Moussa, M.M. (1985): “Dynamic Measurement of Drilling Fluid Rheology at    Elevated Temperature and Pressure”. Conference Proceedings of Middle       East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition, Bahrain.

Olufemi. A. Adekomaya, Olalekan Olafuyi: an experimental study of the effect           of contaminants on the flow properties of oil based drilling mud. Journal     of Petroleum & Coal 53(4)315-) 19,2011.

Serpen, D. (1999): “Use of Sepiolite Clay and Other Minerals for Developing   Geothermal Drilling Fluids”. Journal of Applied Mechanics and      Engineering.

Serpen, D. (2000): “Investigation on Geothermal Drilling Muds with High         Temperature Stability”. Conference Proceedings of World Geothermal       Congress, Kyushu- Tohuku, Japan, 2000.

Serpen, D., Haeiislamoglu, M. and Tuna, O. (1992): “Use of Sepiolite Resources of Turkey in geothermal Muds”. Conference Proceedings of 9th International Petroleum Congress ofTurkey, Ankara, Turkey, 1992.

Zilch, H.E., Otto, M.J. and Pye, D.S. (1991): “The Evolution of Geothermal      Drilling Fluid in the Imperial Valley”. Conference Proceedings of       Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, 1991.

CSN Team.

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