The Incidence and Risk Factors of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Admitted : Current School News

The Incidence and Risk Factors of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Admitted in Antenatal and Postnatal Wards After 20 Weeks of Gestation

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The Incidence and Risk Factors of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Admitted in Antenatal and Postnatal Wards After 20 Weeks of Gestation.

Abstract

Main Objective: This study was therefore to access the incidence of Preeclampsia in women admitted to FMC Yola in their pre and postnatal wards during their last trimester.

Study Design: The study was carried out among pregnant women who are admitted in antenatal and postnatal wards after 20 weeks of gestation and was carried out at FMC Yola Adamawa State from February to April 2015.

Method: Structured Questionnaires from patients in antenatal and postnatal wards at FMC Yola.

Results: The number of women who were diagnosed with either Preeclampsia or Eclampsia was thirty in number. About 90% of the participants who were presented to the hospital during their last trimester were unbook and have high level of blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg and above.

Table Of Contents

Title page…………………….i

Certification page…………………ii

Reader’s Approval Page…………..iii

Dedication Page…………………..iv

Acknowledgements………………. v

Abstract……………………………..vi

Table of Contents………………viii

Definition of Terminologies and Meaning of Acronyms……………. xi

  • Introduction………………..1
  • Limitations…………………..2
  • Comparison of Eclampsia in Nigeria with other parts of the world…… 3
  • Maternal ……………………… 4
  • Complications of maternal health…….4
  • Antenatal care…………………………………….7
  • Aim and objectives of antenatal care………. 7
  • Life style concerns……………8
  • Screenings done during antenatal for maternal complications……11
  • Hypertension…………………12
  • Classification of hypertensive disorders………14
  • Pre-existing (Chronic) Hypertension……….14
  • The definition and diagnosis of hypertensive Disorders…….15
  • Etiology and pathophysiology of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia….. 17
  • Types of Eclampsia…………… 18
  • Complications of Eclampsia……. 19
  • Diagnosis of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia…. 20
  • Epidemiology and risk factors………………. 20
  • Treatment, solutions and management………21
  • NGOs and health organizations……… 22
  • Methods……………………………………… 25
  • Study Area……………………………………27
  • Subjects……………………………………..27
  • Sample Collection………………………. 27
  • Age of the subjects……………………. 28
  • Known History of Preeclampsia….28
  • Number of children……………………28
  • Ethical consideration…………………28
  • Data Management…………………….28
  • Results…………………………………..29
  • Graphical Representation of the Background of the Participant…..29
  • Background information of Preeclampsia…….30
  • Discussion and Conclusion………………………43
  • Discussion…………………………………………….43
  • Conclusion……………………………………………. 46
  • Reference……………47

Introduction

Background Of Study

Preeclampsia is one of the hypertensive disorders that affect pregnant women worldwide; it is characterized by the presence of proteinuria in the pregnant woman’s urinary analysis and increase in blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg, edema or both.

Preeclampsia is the second largest cause of deaths of both mothers and babies in the United Kingdom with the death of at least 6 to 9 mothers annually and 175 babies (Norwitz at el, 2013).

Preeclampsia includes a condition known as preeclamptic toxemia (PET) or gestational proteinuric hypertension, which pregnant women develop after twenty weeks of gestation, due to the placenta disease.

Preeclampsia is characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria and edema, without proper management and intervention it will progress to Eclampsia; this is characterized by malignant hypertension and epileptiform convulsions which will require emergency caesarian section to the woman (Attahir et al, 2010).

Preeclampsia is an illness that occurs more in pregnant women living in developing countries with the estimate of 98% and over 63,000 women nationwide also die of the complications.

It is also known that about 10% of Preeclampsia cases occur in women with first time pregnancies and the severe stage of Preeclampsia will lead to multisystem complication, such as hepatic and renal dysfunction, cerebral hemorrhage, and respiratory compromise (Edmonds, 2007).

References

Agboola, A. (2001). Diabetes Mellitus. In Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Medical Students (Second edition ed., Vol. Chapter 44, p. 365). Lagos, Lagos: Heineemann Educational Books (Nigeria) Plc.

Attahir, A., Dikko, A., Sufiyan, M., Salihu, A., & Rabiu, A. (2010). Association between maternal socio-economic status, polygamy and risk of pre-Eclampsia in rural areas of Northern Nigeria. Journal of Family and Reproductive Health,4(1), 47-52.

Barton, C. B., Barton, J. R., O’Brien, J. M., Bergauer, N. K., & Sibai, B. M. (2002).Mild gestational hypertension: differences in ethnicity are associated with altered outcomes in women who undergo outpatient treatment.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 186(5), 896-898.Mild gestational hypertension remote from term: progression and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:979–83. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:1275–8.

Brown, M. A., Lindheimer, M. D., de Swiet, M., Assche, A. V., & Moutquin, J. M. (2001). The classification and diagnosis of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: statement from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). Hypertension in pregnancy, 20(1), ix- xiv.

CDC. (2014, January 22). Reproductive health/maternal infant health/pregnancy complication. Retrieved February 22, 2015.

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