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The Knowledge Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Causes And Prevention Among Nnamdi Azikiwe Undergraduates


The Knowledge Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Causes And Prevention Among Nnamdi Azikiwe Undergraduates.


Background to the Study

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most common viruses in the modern world and ranked by the WHO as one of the top ten killers (Samir,2013).

The virus is responsible for approximately 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year, two thirds of which are attributable to primary hepatic carcinoma following HBV infection (Martin, 2013; Heymann, 2014).

About 360 million people are chronically infected with HBV. These chronically infected persons are at higher risk of death from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis by approximately 25% and over 4 million new acute clinical cases occur (World Health Organization, 2012; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009).

Hepatitis B virus(HBV) is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine, the first vaccine against cancer due to HBV infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013).

Hepatitis B virus is a well-known occupational hazard of health care workers and they are considered to be at substantial risk for acquiring or transmitting the virus because of the occupational contact with blood, blood products and other body fluids (Kohn et al., 2013).

The occupational risk for HBV acquisition varies according to the work place in the health care setting and time of exposure to the agent (Ciorlia & Zanetta, 2015).

The practice of modern medicine has widely contributed to increasing the cases and spreading the disease in the society.

Hepatitis B virus infection is common due to lapse in the sterilization technique of instruments or due to the improper hospital waste management as 10 to 20% health care waste is regarded hazardous and it may create variety of health risk (Taneja & Biswal, 2016).

Among the health care personnel, HBV is transmitted by skin prick with infected, contaminated needles and syringes or through accidental inoculation of minute quantities of blood during surgical and dental procedures.

Knowledge regarding HBV and safety precautions is needed to minimize the health care settings acquired infections among health personnel.

Health care personnel should have complete knowledge of HBV infections, importance of vaccinations and practice of simple hygienic measures apart from that of specific protective measures.


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