The Petrology of Basement Rocks and Aspects of Gold Mineralization in Kutcheri Area, Wonaka Schist Belt, Northwestern Nigeria
The Petrology of Basement Rocks and Aspects of Gold Mineralization in Kutcheri Area, Wonaka Schist Belt, Northwestern Nigeria.
The study area forms part of the Precambrian to Early Paleozoic Nigerian Basement complex. Multispectral images from Landsat 7 ETM+ were utilized to complement lithological mapping, elucidate lineaments and clearly outline alteration zones.
Field mapping in Faskari and Chafe was carried out using topographical map of Funtua NW sheet 78 on a scale 1: 50, 000 and the area of gold mineralization around Kutcheri were further mapped on a scale of 1: 25, 000 to study it in more detail.
Petrographic studies of 16 samples were conducted using transmitted light microscope. The geochemical analysis of 10 representative samples for major and trace elements was carried out using X-ray fluorescence technique, inductively coupled sector field mass spectrometry.
Also, 13 quartz vein samples were analysed for target (Au) and pathfinder elements (Pb, Hg, Cu, Ag and Zn) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The dominant rock types are gneisses, metasediments, granites and serpentinite with minor quartz-tourmaline rock, aplite dyke, quartzofeldspathic and quartz veins.
Petrographic studies have shown that the gneisses include banded gneiss, porphyroblastic and granite gneiss that mainly composed of quartz, feldspar, biotite ± pyroxene. The metasediments include biotite schist and phyllite that are composed of quartz, biotite, feldspar, ± muscovite, ± chlorite.
The surface area of Nigeria 923,768 km2 is covered in nearly equal proportions by crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks. The crystalline rocks are further divided into three main groups viz: (i) the Basement Complex; (ii) the Younger Granites and (iii) Tertiary – Recent volcanics.
The Nigerian basement which occupies the reactivated region that resulted from plate collision between the passive continental margin of the West African Craton and the active Pharusian continental margins affected by Pan-African Orogeny (Burke and Dewey, 1972; Dada, 2006).Condie (1989) observed that the Kibaran and Pan African events affected mostly the Godwana continent and did not seem to have strong counterparts in other continents.
Tectonic activities in the interludes between the tectono-thermal events were limited mostly to anorogenic magmatism and rifting. Several researchers have worked on the Precambrian and Upper Paleozoic Basement Complex of Nigeria where they investigated its structural, physical, geochemical, geochronological, metamorphic, petrological and mineralogical aspects.
The present works is aimed at establishing petrogenetic characteristics of the lithological units in Funtua Sheet 78 NW and study some aspects of gold mineralization in Kutcheri, Wonaka Schist Belt, Northwestern Nigeria. The study area is located at the southeastern edge of the belt.
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