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The Practice of Hand-Washing Among Nurses and the Prevention of Nosocomial Infection (PDF)


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The Practice of Hand-Washing among Nurses and the Prevention of Nosocomial Infection

ABSTRACT

The study; The practice of hand-washing among nurses and the prevention of Nosocomial Infection was conducted in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital-Uyo Akwa Ibom state. Most hospital acquired infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers especially nurses.

The specific objectives was; To assess the level of practice of handwashing among nurses. To determine the knowledge level of nurses regarding handwashing.

To identify factors that hinder adherence to handwashing practices among nurses. Research questions were also generated based on objectives, data collected using a 20 itemized structured questionnaire which was based on research questions. The target population was 400 nurses, accidental sampling technique was adopted and the sample size was 100 nurses.

The method of data analysis was the use of frequency and percentages presented on tables and compound bar chart.

The data collected were analyzed, research findings discussed and conclusion reached based on finding from the result, it was noted that44( 44%) of nurses do wash their hand with soap and running water before any work or procedure,82(82%) of nurses agree that handwashing prevent infection and62( 62%) of nurses do wear gloves as an alternatives to handwashing.

Based on the findings from the study, it is recommended that, hospital administrators should strive to create an organizational atmosphere in which adherence to recommended handwashing practices is considered an integral part of providing high quality patients care.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page 

Title Page –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – i

Certification –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – ii

Abstract –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – iii

Dedication –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – iv

Acknowledgement –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – vi

Table of Content –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – vii

List of Tables –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – x

List of Figure –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – xi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Background of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 1

1.2       Statement of the Problem –           –           –           –           –           – 3

1.3       Research Questions –           –           –           –           –           –           – 4

1.4       Objectives of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 4

1.5       Significance of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 5

1.6       Scope of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           – 6

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms –           –           –           –           – 6

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review –           –           –           –           –           –           – 7

2.1       Conceptual Review –           –           –           –           –           –           – 7

2.2       Theoretical Framework  –           –           –           –           –           – 9

2.3       Empirical Review –           –           –           –           –           –           – 10

CHAPTER THREE

3.1       Research Design –           –           –           –           –           –           – 17

3.2       Research Setting –           –           –           –           –           –           – 17

3.3       Target Population –           –           –           –           –           –           – 18

3.4       Sampling Size Determination –           –           –           –           – 18

3.5       Sampling Technique –           –           –           –           –           –           – 19

3.6       Instrument for Data Collection –           –           –           –           – 19

3.7       Validity of Instrument –          –           –           –           –           –           – 20

3.8       Reliability of Instrument –           –           –           –           –           – 20

3.9       Method of Data Collection –           –           –           –           –           – 20

3.10     Method of Data Analysis –           –           –           –           –           – 21

3.11     Ethical Consideration –           –           –           –           –           –           – 21

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Results –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 22

4.1       Presentation of Results Using Tables and Charts –           –           – 23

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Discussion of Findings –           –           –           –           –           – 34

5.1       Findings from Demographic Data –           –           –           –           – 34

5.4       Implication to Nursing            –           –           –           –           –           –           36

5.5       Limitation of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           37

5.6       Summary –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 37

5.7       Conclusion –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 39

5.6       Recommendation –           –           –           –           –           –           – 39 

5.7       Suggestion for Further Studies –           –           –           –           – 40

References –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 41

Questionnaires –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 43-45


INTRODUCTION

Nosocomial infections are classified as infections that originate in the hospital. Nosocomial infections can either develop during a clients stay in a healthcare facility or manifest after discharge.

Nosocomial micro-organisms may also be acquired by health personnel working in the facility and cause significant illness and time lost from work (Berman and Snyder 2012).

One of the most recurrent themes with regards to the prevention of nosocomial infections in hospitals has been the issue of hand washing among medical personnels (Argon, Sole, Brown 2015).

Hand washing is the act of using water or another liquid or with soap for the purpose of removing soil, dirt and /or micro-organisms.

Nurses constitutes the largest percentage of health care workers and they are the “nucleus “of the health care system because the spend more time with the patients than any other health care workers .Their compliance with hand hygiene guidelines seems to be more vital in preventing the disease transmissions .(Akyol,2007 ,Ott and French 2009).

Hand hygiene substantially reduces potential pathogens on the hands and is considered a primary measure for reducing the risks of transmitting organism to patients and health care personnel (centre for disease control, 2013).

The world Health organization (WHO) strongly emphasizes the essential need for hand hygiene during health care delivery to avoid possible infections and subsequent complications, hence  the clean care is safe care programme launched by WHO in 2005 as part of the first global patient safety challenge.

This programme offers new guidelines on hand hygiene training observation and performance reporting in health care settings (Pittet, 2009).

According to Global Hand washing Partnership, (GHP), (2017), Ignaz semmelweis, a Hungarian Doctor working in Vienna General Hospital is known as the father of hand hygiene .

In (1846),he noticed that the women giving birth in the medical students/doctor _run maternity ward in his hospital were much more likely to develop a fever and die compared to the women giving birth in the adjacent midwife run maternity ward .He decided to investigate.

He noticed that doctors and medical students often visited the maternity ward directly after performing an autopsy.

As a result he developed a theory that those performing got cadaverous particles on their hands which they carried from the autopsy room into the maternity  ward .Midwifes did not conduct surgeries or autopsies ,hence they were not exposed to these particles.


REFERENCES

Akyol, A.D.(2007). Hand hygiene among nurses in Turkey: opinions and practices, Journal of clinical nursing ,16,431-437. 

Allegranzi, B. And Pittet, D. (2009) Role of hand   hygiene in health care associated infection prevention available at http:/WWW.inteligentm.com/article/article improved standard practice .pdf and Sa = U and ved. 

Al-Wazzan, B. Yasmeen, Y. Amiri, E.(2011):Hand hygiene practices among nursing staff in public secondary care hospitals in Kuwatt: from http://WWW.ncbi.nlm.nh.gov/pubmed/215769 

Argon, D; Sole, M.I. and Brown ,S.(2015) ACN clinic issues 16(2),121-132 . 

Asare, A., Enweronu-laryea C.C.,Neuman ,M.J.,(2009) Hand hygiene practices in a neonatal intensive care unit in Ghana :the journal of infection in developing countries, 3(5) 

Berman, A. J., Snyder, S.,(2012). Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process and Practice 9th Ed. England, Pearson Education. 

Centre for disease control (2011).Health care associated infections. Retrieved from http://WWW.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance.  

Centre for disease control and prevention (2013).Definition of hand hygiene ,Retrieved from http://WWW.cdc.giv.handhygiene/training/interactiveeducation/ 

Clean care is safer care. Fools and resources. World Health Organization http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/en/idex.html 

Erasmus, V. Brouwer, W. Van Beeck E. F. (2015). A qualitative exploration of reasons for poor hand hygiene among hospital workers: Lack of positive role models and of convincing evidence that hand hygiene prevents cross infection. Infect control Hosp. Epidemiol 30;415-9. 

Global hand washing partnership (GHP) (2017).from https://globalhandwashing.org/about-handwashing /history-of-handwashing. 

Gould, D.J., Chudleigh, J., Drey, N.S. Moralejo, D.  (2010) Measuring hand washing performance in health services audits and research studies: from hhtp://WWW.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433491 

Ige, O. K., Adesanmi, A. A. and Asuzu, M. C.(2011).Hospital acquired infections in a Nigerian tertiary health facility. Articles from   Nigerian Medical journal: journal of the Nigeria medical association 52(4), 239-243. 

Kaye, K.S., Sexton, D.J., and Schmader ,K.A.(2009) Risk factors for surgical site infections in older people:54(3):391-6. https://WWW.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16551304/ 

Klevens, R. M., Edwards ,J.R., Richards C.L.(2010) Estimating health care associated infections and deaths in US hospitals ,public health rep ;122(2),160-166.  

Lipsett, P.A., Swoboda S.M.(2011), Hand washing compliance depends on professional status .22(3). 

Nabavi, M., Alavi –Moghaddam, M.,Gachkar, L., and Moeinian ,M; Knowledge, Attitudes and practices ,study on hand hygiene among Imam Hossein. Hospitals Residents from https ://WWW.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22226568858/ 

Ott, M., and French, R.(2009). Hand hygiene Compliance among health care staff and students nurses in a mental health setting Mental Health nursing 30,702-704. 

Regoniel, P.A., (2015).Conceptual frame work :A step by step guide on how to make one. In simple educate me. Retrieved from http://simplyeducate.me/2015/05/conceptualframework-guide/ 

Van De Mortel TF, Kermode , S. Prongo (2011).A comparison of the hand hygiene knowledge ,belief and practices of Italian nursing and medical students :from https://WWW.ncbi,nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722171/

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