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The Practice Of Standard Precautionary Measures in the Prevention Of Cross Infection Among Nurses in St. Luke’s Hospital Anua (PDF)

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The Practice Of Standard Precautionary Measures in the Prevention Of Cross Infection Among Nurses in St. Luke’s Hospital Anua

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted on standard precautionary measures in prevention of cross infection among nurses in St. Luke’s Hospital, Anua, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.

The objectives to be achieved from this study were: To assess the influence of environmental control in the prevention of cross infection among nurses in St. Luke’s Hospital, Anua;

To examine the influence of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention of cross infection among nurses in St. Luke’s hospital, and To investigate proper disposal of biohazards among nurses in St. Luke’s Hospital Anua, Uyo, AKS.

The significance of the study was focused on the nurses, patient, hospital, government and future researchers. The methodology used is a non-experimental design, specifically descriptive design. A target population of 100 registered nurses both male and females were used.

Data were collected using a twenty (20) itemed structured questionnaire which was based on the research questions. The conceptual framework used for the study was Health Belief Model.

Data were presented on tables, figures and percentages. From the result, it was discovered that 78 (78%) of the respondents have practiced standard precautions as a sit to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens when providing health care services.

Therefore, based on the findings, it was concluded that nurses working in the ward of St. Luke’s Hospital Anua, Uyo practice standard precautionary measures but not adequately as some factors hinder their effective practice of standard precautionary measures, the factors include, non-availability of equipments and lack of seminar presentations.

The researcher therefore recommended that the hospital administration should make provision for more PPE to qualified nurses for effective practice of standard precautionary measures and prevention of cross infection.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page 

Title Page –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – i

Certification –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – ii

Abstract –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – iii

Dedication –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – iv

Acknowledgement –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – v

Table of Content –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – vi-viii

List of Tables –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – ix

List of Figure –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 1

1.1       Background of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 1

1.2       Statement of the Problem –           –           –           –           –           – 4

1.3       Research Questions –           –           –           –           –           –           – 5

1.4       Objectives of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 5

1.5       Significance of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 6

1.6       Scope of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           – 6

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms –           –           –           –           – 7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review –           –           –           –           –           –           – 8

2.1       Conceptual Review –           –           –           –           –           –           – 8

2.2       Empirical Review –           –           –           –           –           –           – 13

2.3       Theoretical Framework  –           –           –           –           –           – 19

Application to the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 21

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Methodology –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 22

3.1       Research Design –           –           –           –           –           –           – 22

3.2       Research Setting –           –           –           –           –           –           – 22

3.3       Target Population –           –           –           –           –           –           – 23

3.4       Sampling Size Determination –           –           –           –           – 23

3.5       Sampling Technique –           –           –           –           –           –           – 23

3.6       Instrument for Data Collection –           –           –           –           – 24

3.7       Validity of Instrument –          –           –           –           –           –           – 24

3.8       Reliability of Instrument –           –           –           –           –           – 24

3.9       Method of Data Collection –           –           –           –           –           – 24

3.10     Method of Data Analysis –           –           –           –           –           – 25

3.11     Ethical Consideration –           –           –           –           –           –           – 25

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Results –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 26

4.1       Presentation of Results Using Tables and Charts –           –           – 26

4.2       Proper Labeling of Tables, Charts –           –           –           –           – 26

4.3       Proper Description of Contents of Tables, and Charts –           – 27

4.4       Answering Research Questions –           –           –           –           – 27

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Discussion of Findings –           –           –           –           –           – 33

5.1       Identifying Key Findings –           –           –           –           –           – 33

5.2       Implications to Nursing –           –           –           –           –           – 34 

5.3       Limitations of the Study –           –           –           –           –           – 34

5.4       Summary –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 34

5.5       Conclusion –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 35

5.6       Recommendation –           –           –           –           –           –           – 36 

5.7       Suggestion For Further Studies –           –           –           –           – 36

References –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 37

Questionnaires –           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 39-40


INTRODUCTION

Health care workers are at risk of exposure to not only HIV infection but also other infections. Transmission of these infections in health care settings can occur from patient to health care workers, between patients or from health care worker to patients.

The risk to staff arises from; sharps and hollow needles, splashing of conjunctivae and mucous membranes with contaminated blood and body fluids, Heavy contamination of broken skin e.g. cuts and Handling of large quantities of blood and body fluids without protective clothing.

The risk to patients arises from, use of recycled hollow needles and syringes; contaminated blood transfusion; poor ward facilities and cleaning. Realizing these risks, infection control measures should be taken to protect patients and health care workers against all sort of infections, which are spread by ramous routes of transmission.

The universal precautions or standard precautions were developed to protect essentially health care workers against blood-borne infections through needle-sticks and mucous membrane exposure to contaminated blood and body fluids.

These precautionary measures are applied 2, all patients regardless of their presumed infection status and to: blood, semen and vaginal sections, all dead body fluids.

Standard precautionary measures are considered the most important strategy for successful infection control in the health care setting. They involve work practices which avoid direct contact with blood and all body fluids and guard against needle stick injuries and exposures to mucous membranes.

The infection control practices include Handwashing, Appropriate use of personal protective equipment including gloves, mask, eye goggles, face shield and gown.

Use of disposables and proper cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of patient-care equipment.

Proper housekeeping and management of spillage and Disposal of sharps and infectious wastes.

Hand washing is a process of rumoring to transient, potentially pathogenic micro-organisms from the hands and it is a critical factor in management of all patients.

Since the hands serves as the easiest means of infection transmission, it should be washed boutinely before and often coming into contact with patient, when they are contaminated with blood and body fluids.

After removing gloves and before and after each patient care produce. This practice renders the hands free from infections.


REFERENCES

Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens and Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (2012) Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents: safe working and the prevention of infection. London: Department of Health.

Department of Health (2011) Winning Ways -Working together to reduce Healthcare Associated Infection in England. London: Department of Health.

Health and Safety Commission (2014) Safety of pressure systems: pressure systems safety regulation. London: HSC.

Health and Safety Commission (2014) The control of substances hazardous to health regulations (fourth edition). Sudbury: HSE Books.

Infection Control Nurses Association and Royal College of General Practitioners (2013) Infection control guidance for general practice. Bathgate: ICNA. (Tel: 01506 811077 for copies)

Medical Devices Agency (2012) Sterilisation, disinfection and cleaning of medical equipment, London: MDA.

Medical Devices Agency (2013) The validation and periodic testing of bench top vacuum steam sterilisers. London: MDA (DB 1998/4).

National Patient Safety Alert (2013) Clean hands help to save lives. London: NPSA (Patient Safety Alert No.4).

NHS Estates (2010) A protocol for the local decontamination of surgical instruments, London: Department of Health.

NHS Estates (2010) The NHS healthcare cleaning manual. London: Department of Health. www.nhsestates.gov.uk

NHS Executive (2010) Washer-disinfectors. London: HMSO (Health Technical Memorandum 2030).

National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2010) Standard principles for preventing hospital acquired infections. London: NICE.

Health and Safety Commission (2012) The control of substances hazardous to health  regulations (fourth edition). Sudbury: HSE Books.

Health Service Advisory Committee (201) Safe disposal of clinical waste (second edition). Sudbury: HSE Books.

Siegel, J. D., Rhinehart, T., Jackson, M. and Chiavello, L. (2007). Health infection control practices Advisory committee.Guideline for protection, precautions, preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare setting – Centre for Disease control.

Twitchell, K.T. (2008). Blood borne pathogens:What you need to know­part II PAOHNJ, 51(2), 87- 97.

Walsh, M. (2007). Watson Clinical Nursing and Related Sciences (7th ed.). United Kingdom: Baillere Tindallin.

Widmer, A.F. Sax, H, and Pittet, D. (2009) Infection control and Hospital Epidemiology outside the united state. Infection Control Hospital Epidemic, 20, 17-21. Retrieved from http://dx.dw.org/10,1086/50-1546 Accessed 20th September.

Wilson, J. (2010). Infection Control in Clinical Practice Canada: Elsevier Publishers.

World Health Organization (2007) ” The first Global Patient Safety Challenge” clean care is, safe care. Available at http://www.who.int/gpsclen. Retrieved 7th September, 2017.

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CSN Team

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