Toxic Profile of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Senna Siamea : Current School News

Toxic Profile of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Senna Siamea and its Antioxidant Prpoperties

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Toxic Profile of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Senna Siamea and its Antioxidant Prperties.

 

Abstract

Medicinal plants have been assumed to be good in detoxifications because they contain bioactive compounds capable of doing this.
However, some plants are very toxic to both humans and animals with the potential of damaging certain organs in the body. Many plant- derived substances, collectively termed “phytochemicals,” are becoming increasingly known for their antioxidant activity.
This study is aimed at investigating the toxic and as well as the antioxidant profile of methanol extract of Senna siamea leaves, extensively used in Nigeria folk medicine to manage various ailments.
The potent metabolites were quantified using standard methods and the antioxidant scavenging potentials of the extract on DPPH and superoxide radicals were also determined.

Both acute and sub-acute toxicity profile were evaluated by determining the LD50, liver and kidney function tests, which was then correlated and confirmed with histopathologic techniques of hepatocytes and kidney cells. Furthermore, haematological parameters of the test rats were determined.
The qualitative phytochemical screening of the leaves of S. siamea revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpenoids and quinones in the leaves.
The result of these tests also indicates that tannin, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, terpenoids, alkaloids, total phenols, glycosides and flavonoids were contained in various amounts when quantified.
The antioxidant vitamin contents of the extract was also quantified and this showed that vitamin E was significantly higher (p< 0.05), (181.70±2.47 mg/100g) when compared to vitamin A (40.35±13.60 mg/100g) and vitamin C (4.11±0.06 mg/100g).

Introduction

Background Of Study
Medicinal plants are believed to be important sources of new chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Their activities depend on its phytochemical contents (Meyer et al., 1997).
Presently, it is estimated that about 80% of the world’s population are dependent on medicinal plants or plant-derived products for their health needs (Shri, 2003).
The use of medicinal plant is presently on the increase due to its availability, affordability, accessibility, and promising efficacy comparable to the often high cost and adverse effects associated with standard synthetic drug agents (Kwada and Tella, 2009).
One therefore expect bioactive compounds obtained from such plants to have low animal and human toxicity. However, people are often unaware of important similarities and differences between medicinal herbs and approved medications (Williamson et al., 1996).
Some mistakenly think of herbs as natural alternatives to chemicals, failing to recognize that herbs are composed of bioactive chemicals, some of which may be toxic (Fabricant and Farnsworth, 2001).
Medicinal plants have been documented to have advantage in toxicity considerations based on their long term use (Zhu et al., 2002).
Some plants are very toxic to both humans and animals with the potential of damaging certain organs in the body. (Edoga et al., 2005). This calls for caution in the use of medicinal plants.
Toxicity studies on medicinal plants or extracts usually determine the level of safety particularly during the development of drugs (Jaijoy et al., 2010).

References

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Alli-Smith Y. R (2009). Determination of Chemical Composition of Senna siamea (Cassia Leaves). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 119-121
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Aliyu, B.S. (2006). Common Ethnomedicinal Plants of the Semi-Arid Regions of West Africa: Their Descriptions and Phytochemicals. Triumph Publishing Cooperative Limited, Kano, Nigeria, pp: 93-94.

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