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Urban Flooding Problems

ABSTRACT

This study examined the problems of urban flooding in Uyo urban Akwa Ibom State with view to identifying the types of flood prevalent in the study area, anthropogenic causes of flood and impacts associated with urban flood in uyo.

To this end, two research hypotheses were formulated, stratified random sampling was used to stratify Uyo into six (6) zones and questionnaires were administered.  Taro Yamane method for finite population was computed that 400 copies of questionnaires were administered in the study area as well as used in the analysis.

The first hypothesis was tested using Chi-square (x2) at 0.05 level of significance in order to otherwise if anthropogenic activities are responsible for the occurrence of flooding menace in the study area.  Also, the second hypothesis was tested using regression analysis to test for the impacts of urban flood on people.

The analyses showed that anthropogenic activities account for the occurrence of urban flooding in the study area and urban flood do have significant impacts on people.

Based on these finding, it was recommended that among others that adequate drainage channels should be provided by government, good and adequate land-use should be encouraged.

Provision of adequate waste receptacles to discourage dumping of refuse in drainage channels and environmental education and awareness programms should be embarked upon at regular intervals to sensitize people on flood issues.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vii

List of Table                                                                                                                x

List of Figure                                                                                                              xi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               5

1.3       Research Questions                                                                                         7

1.4       Aims and Objectives of Study                                                                       7

1.5       Research Hypothesis                                                                                       8

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               8

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                         9

1.8       Limitation of the Study                                                                                  9

1.9       The Study Area                                                                                               11

1.9.1    Historical Background                                                                                    11

1.9.2    Location and Size                                                                                           14

1.9.3    Climate                                                                                                            14

1.9.4    Vegetation/Land-use                                                                                      16

1.9.5    Geology and Soil                                                                                            16

1.9.6    Relief and Drainage                                                                                        17

1.9.7    Population and Settlement                                                                              18

1.9.8    Socio-Economic Activities                                                                             18

1.10     Definition of terms                                                                                         19

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2.1       Review of Related Literature                                                                         20

2.1.1    Meaning and Types of Flood                                                                          20

2.1.2    Causes of Urban Flood                                                                                   24

2.1.3    Urban Flood Impacts and Vulnerability Status                                              29

2.1.4    Summary of Literature Review                                                                      31

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                   32

2.2.1    The Concept of Urban Catchment                                                                  32

2.2.2    The Concept of Vulnerability                                                                         33

2.2.3    The Concept of Resident Flood Risk Management                                       36

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             38

3.2       Data Needs                                                                                                    38

3.3       Sources of Data                                                                                              39

3.3.1    Primary Sources                                                                                              39

3.3.2    Secondary Sources                                                                                          39

3.4       Sampling Techniques                                                                                      40

3.5       Sampled Population                                                                                        40

3.6       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               41

3.7       Statistical Technique                                                                                       42

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis                                                                      43

4.1.1    Socio-Economic Analysis of Respondents                                                     42

4.1.2    Analysis of Socio-Economic Attributes of Urban

Flooding in the Study Area                                                                            45

4.1.2.1 Flood Experience                                                                                            45

4.1.2.2 Types of Flood Experience in Uyo Urban                                                      46

4.1.2.3 Impact of Flood in Uyo Urban                                                                       47

4.1.2.4 Forms of Flood Impact experience in Uyo Urban                                          47

4.1.2.5 Anthropogenic Causes of Flood                                                                     48

4.2       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                                49

4.3       Discussion of Findings                                                                                  52

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary of Findings                                                                                     54

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      55

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          56

References                                                                                                      57

Appendices 64

INTRODUCTION

Urban flood is one of the hazards that affect man since time immemorial (Sada, 2004). Throughout history, nature has shown little respect for man’s unwise occupancy of watershed in humid tropical lands and elsewhere (WRC, 2009).

Flooding dates back to the Biblical days of Noah and since the pre-historical times, man has been involved in an unending struggle with natural hazards such as flood, earthquake and volcanic eruption, among others (Blazkomac, 2014).  According to Askew (2001), flooding is the most common of all environmental hazards worldwide, either induced by nature or by anthropogenic actions in the environment which has left indelible make on the landscape.  Since early times, flood has been a major aspect of man’s interaction with his environment, and scores of flood disasters are found in the traditions and literatures of many ancient people (Redijk, 2004).

In recent time, urban flood are repeatedly reported in the head lines of local national and international media because of the adverse effect it has on infrastructures. Since 1970, the world has witnessed more than ten major urban flood disaster (Allt, 2005).  In the study of Berz (2000) floods contribute about 58% of total death and 33% of economic losses and that over the period of 1988 to 1997.  There was a trend of increasing number of flood events, as well as economic losses globally.

Urban flood is associated with some extreme natural events that happen on a geographical area and urban floods can have both area-wide and local origin, and are accompanied with serious environmental problems (Akintola, 2013).  Urban flood occurrence is not bound by local administrative boundaries as observed by Iyewson [2010) because storm water   drainage and protection facilities are part of an urban system to channel drains.  Sada (2004) opined that urban flood as an environmental hazard has caused much concern, not only to developing countries, but also to developed countries of the world.

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CSN Team

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