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Urban Flooding Problems
This study examined the problems of urban flooding in Uyo urban Akwa Ibom State with view to identifying the types of flood prevalent in the study area, anthropogenic causes of flood and impacts associated with urban flood in uyo.
To this end, two research hypotheses were formulated, stratified random sampling was used to stratify Uyo into six (6) zones and questionnaires were administered. Taro Yamane method for finite population was computed that 400 copies of questionnaires were administered in the study area as well as used in the analysis.
The first hypothesis was tested using Chi-square (x2) at 0.05 level of significance in order to otherwise if anthropogenic activities are responsible for the occurrence of flooding menace in the study area. Also, the second hypothesis was tested using regression analysis to test for the impacts of urban flood on people.
The analyses showed that anthropogenic activities account for the occurrence of urban flooding in the study area and urban flood do have significant impacts on people.
Based on these finding, it was recommended that among others that adequate drainage channels should be provided by government, good and adequate land-use should be encouraged.
Provision of adequate waste receptacles to discourage dumping of refuse in drainage channels and environmental education and awareness programms should be embarked upon at regular intervals to sensitize people on flood issues.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents vii
List of Table x
List of Figure xi
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 Aims and Objectives of Study 7
1.5 Research Hypothesis 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Limitation of the Study 9
1.9 The Study Area 11
1.9.1 Historical Background 11
1.9.2 Location and Size 14
1.9.3 Climate 14
1.9.4 Vegetation/Land-use 16
1.9.5 Geology and Soil 16
1.9.6 Relief and Drainage 17
1.9.7 Population and Settlement 18
1.9.8 Socio-Economic Activities 18
1.10 Definition of terms 19
LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Review of Related Literature 20
2.1.1 Meaning and Types of Flood 20
2.1.2 Causes of Urban Flood 24
2.1.3 Urban Flood Impacts and Vulnerability Status 29
2.1.4 Summary of Literature Review 31
2.2 Conceptual Framework 32
2.2.1 The Concept of Urban Catchment 32
2.2.2 The Concept of Vulnerability 33
2.2.3 The Concept of Resident Flood Risk Management 36
3.1 Research Design 38
3.2 Data Needs 38
3.3 Sources of Data 39
3.3.1 Primary Sources 39
3.3.2 Secondary Sources 39
3.4 Sampling Techniques 40
3.5 Sampled Population 40
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 41
3.7 Statistical Technique 42
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 43
4.1.1 Socio-Economic Analysis of Respondents 42
4.1.2 Analysis of Socio-Economic Attributes of Urban
Flooding in the Study Area 45
188.8.131.52 Flood Experience 45
184.108.40.206 Types of Flood Experience in Uyo Urban 46
220.127.116.11 Impact of Flood in Uyo Urban 47
18.104.22.168 Forms of Flood Impact experience in Uyo Urban 47
22.214.171.124 Anthropogenic Causes of Flood 48
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses 49
4.3 Discussion of Findings 52
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings 54
5.2 Conclusion 55
5.3 Recommendations 56
Urban flood is one of the hazards that affect man since time immemorial (Sada, 2004). Throughout history, nature has shown little respect for man’s unwise occupancy of watershed in humid tropical lands and elsewhere (WRC, 2009).
Flooding dates back to the Biblical days of Noah and since the pre-historical times, man has been involved in an unending struggle with natural hazards such as flood, earthquake and volcanic eruption, among others (Blazkomac, 2014). According to Askew (2001), flooding is the most common of all environmental hazards worldwide, either induced by nature or by anthropogenic actions in the environment which has left indelible make on the landscape. Since early times, flood has been a major aspect of man’s interaction with his environment, and scores of flood disasters are found in the traditions and literatures of many ancient people (Redijk, 2004).
In recent time, urban flood are repeatedly reported in the head lines of local national and international media because of the adverse effect it has on infrastructures. Since 1970, the world has witnessed more than ten major urban flood disaster (Allt, 2005). In the study of Berz (2000) floods contribute about 58% of total death and 33% of economic losses and that over the period of 1988 to 1997. There was a trend of increasing number of flood events, as well as economic losses globally.
Urban flood is associated with some extreme natural events that happen on a geographical area and urban floods can have both area-wide and local origin, and are accompanied with serious environmental problems (Akintola, 2013). Urban flood occurrence is not bound by local administrative boundaries as observed by Iyewson [2010) because storm water drainage and protection facilities are part of an urban system to channel drains. Sada (2004) opined that urban flood as an environmental hazard has caused much concern, not only to developing countries, but also to developed countries of the world.
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