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Uses and Gratifications Of Newspaper Editorials Among Readers In Uyo Urban (PDF)

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Uses and Gratifications Of Newspaper Editorials Among Readers In Uyo Urban 

ABSTRACT

This study was centered on the utilizations of newspaper editorials among readers in Uyo Urban.  The objectives were to find out the degree of newspaper editorial readership in Uyo Urban; to find out the different needs, newspaper editorials readers have in mind when reading newspaper editorial ; to find out newspaper editorial readers expectations and to find out to what extent these needs are being met by newspaper editorials.

The study hinges on three communication theories which are Uses and Gratification, Media Dependency and Agenda Setting theories. Survey method was adopted by the researcher and a sample size of 383 respondents was selected from a population of 427,436 were examined.

The instrument used was the questionnaire. The summary of the findings from the study were that not all newspaper readers read newspaper editorials; information was the need readers of newspaper editorials sought to gratify; expectations of newspaper  editorials readers are accuracy in terms of facts, unbiased stand, truth concerning an issue, objectivity, balanced view, presentation of issue, adequate information on an issue, detailed explanation on an issue, education and wide coverage and analysis; audience expectations can be met through  the presentation of the issue in the editorial through the presentation of the issue in the editorial, analysis, interpretation and issues chosen  to be discussed.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER                            TITLE                                                                 PAGE

Title Page        —          —          —          —                      i

Declaration      —          —          —          —                      ii

Certification    —          —          —          —                      iii

Dedication      —          —          —          —                      iv

Acknowledgements    —          —          —                      v

Abstract          —          —          —          —                      vi

Table of Contents       —          —          —                   viii

List of Tables  —          —          —          —                      xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study       —          —          —          —          —                      1

1.2       Statement of the Problem       —          —          —          —          —          —          4

1.3       Objectives of the Study          —          —          —          —          —          —          4

1.4       Research Questions     —          —          —          —          —          —          —          5

1.5       Justification for the Study      —          —          —          —          —          —          5

1.6      Delimitations of the Study     —          —          —          —          —          —          5

1.7       Limitations of the Study         —          —          —          —          —          —          6

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms         —          —          —          —          —          6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Review of Concepts   —          —          —          —          —          —          —          7

2.1.1    The Nature of Newspaper       —          —          —          —          —          —          7

2.1.2   Function of Newspapers         —          —          —          —          —          —          10

2.1.3    The History of the Newspaper in Nigeria       —          —          —          —          13

2.1.4   Newspapers as a Tool for Mass Communication         —          —          —          18

2.1.5.   Newspaper Audience             —          —          —          —          —          —          19

2.1.6    The Media and the Watchdog Role    —          —          —          —          —          20

2.1.7    Investigative /Interpretative Journalism          —          —          —          —          21

2.1.8    Evolution of Editorial Writing in Nigeria      —          —          —          —          22

2.1.9    The Challenge of Editorial Writing    —          —          —          —          —          23

2.2       Review of Opinions    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          24

2.2.1    What Constitute Editorial       —          —          —          —          —          —          24

2.2.2    Functions of Editorials           —          —          —          —          —          —          25

2.2.3    Focus of Editorials          —     —          —          —          —          —          —          26

2.2.4    Types of Editorials      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          27

2.2.5    Why People Use the Media    —          —          —          —          —          —          28

2.3       Review of Studies      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          29

2.4       Theoretical Framework           —          —          —          —          —          —          34

2.4.1    Uses   and Gratifications Theory        —          —          —          —          —          34

2.4.2    Media Dependency Theory    —          —          —          —          —          —          36

2.4.3    Agenda Setting Theory           —          —          —          —          —          —          37

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Method        —          —          —          —          —          —          —          39

3.2       Population of Study    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          39

3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Procedure            —          —          —          —          40

3.4       Description of Research Instrument   —          —          —          —          —          42

3.5       Validity of Research Instrument        —          —          —          —          —          42

3.6       Method of Data Collection     —          —          —          —          —          —          42

3.7       Method of Data Analysis       —          —          —          —          —          —          43 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION                  OF FINDINGS

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis          —          —          —          —          —          44

4.2       Discussion of Findings           —          —          —          —          —          —          51

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary of Findings —          —          —          —          —          —          —          55

5.2       Conclusion      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          56

5.3       Recommendations      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          57

  • Suggestion for further Studies           —          —          —          —          —          57

References      —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          58

Appendix        —          —          —          —          —          —          —          —          61


INTRODUCTION

The mass media in today’s society are indispensable. Different people in society from all ages, occupations, thinking, beliefs, values and attitudes, use the mass media to satisfy certain needs. The mass media can be broadly categorised into print and electronic media.

The electronic media have the radio and television as it component, while the print media comprises of newspapers, magazines, journals, books and other print media comprises of newspaper, magazines, journal, books and other printed materials.

Newspapers first appeared in Nigeria in Calabar with the installation of a printing press by the Presbyterian Mission in 1846, Saheed (2013).

The birth of newspaper production in Nigeria also gave birth to eras of newspapers. The era include the era known as the alien era which was the newspaper dominated by foreign publishing, the colonial era dominated by nationalist and post colonial era dominated by indigenous publishers.

The content of newspaper that featured in each era had unique qualities peculiar to that era. As newspaper increased, features and different section were added to it. One of the prominent features was editorial. According to Ekeanyanwu and Jokodola (2005, p. 75) “there is really no history of the emergence of editorial writing in Nigerian newspaper”.

Udoh (2015, p. 65) defines editorial as “the opinion of a media house on an issue which is in the news”. He goes further to say that ‘it is an institutional comment or explanation of the significance of an issue in the editorial… it is through editorials, a newspaper makes it position clear on an issue, event or individual and tries to stimulate the thinking of its readers.”

It is also “a specified page on which it is written to express the view or stand of the newspaper over an issue of public interest”, Udoudo (2013, p. 3). It is a “write-up by the editorial board of a newspaper or magazine on recent and burning issue”, Asemah (2011).


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Akpan, E. (2000). “Editorial Writing” in: Wilson, D. (Ed). Introduction to Print Media: Readings in Nigerian Journalism. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. Pp. 66-76.

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