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Women Empowerment in Enugu State: a Study of Political Representation Since 1999

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Women Empowerment in Enugu State: a Study of Political Representation Since 1999.

ABSTRACT

The study examined Women Empowerment in Enugu State with emphasis on political representation since 1999.The broad objective of the study was to examine the degree of women political participation in Enugu state between 1999 – 2011.

The central thesis of the study was that despite efforts made by government and non governmental organizations towards effective political empowerment of women, they are still under represented in elective political offices in Enugu state.

The study was based on observational method of secondary sources of data which enabled us to observe and analyze political phenomena within the period under investigation.

The findings of the study revealed that low income status of women compared to their counterparts is implicated in their inadequate access to elective political office in Enugu state.

Secondly, the study revealed that women’s preoccupation with family building accounts for their ineffective political participation in Enugu state politics.

The study recommended among others, a proactive policy that will encourage women to participate effectively and compete in elective political offices in Enugu state.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page- – – – – – – – – – -i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – — – – -iii
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – -vi

Chapter One

Introduction — — — — — — — — — — —1
Statement of the Problem — — — — — — — — — — –4
Objectives of Study — — — — — — — — —— –6
Significance of the Study — — — — — — —– — –7
Literature Review — — — — — — — — — — –8
Theoretical Framework — — — — — — — — — -23
Hypotheses — — — — — — — — — — -26
Method of Data Collection—— — — — — — — — -26
Method of Data Analyses — — — — — — — -27

CHAPTER TWO: THE STRUGGLE OVER WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN NIGERIA AND ENUGU STATE

Sources of Nigeria Women’s Political Powerlessness– — — — –30
Gender Disparity in Political Participation as a Global Phenomenon — — –34
Discrimination against Women International, Regional and Domestic Overview — –44

CHAPTER THREE: WOMEN AND POLITICAL REPRESENTATION IN ENUGU STATE SINCE 1999

Appraisal of Women’s Role in Post- colonial Nigeria – – – -53
Established Records of Marginalization of Women in Nigeria Politics – -59
Analysis of Enugu State Experience 1999-201 – – – – -165
Strategies for Women Empowerment in Enugu State – – – -81

CHAPTER FOUR: EFFECT OF POLITICAL REPRESENTATION AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN ENUGU STATE SINCE 1999

Historical Overview of Women Political Representatives in Nigeria – -85
Discrimination against Women International, Regional and Domestic Overview – -115

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary – – – – – – – – – -127
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 127
Recommendations – – – – – – – – -128
BIBLIOGRAPHY- – – – – – – – – -129

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

One of the fundamental challenges confronting women in every political system centers on the pervasive phenomenon of political alienation and domination of women by their male counterpart.

This debilitating condition of gender inequality and discrimination against women in political participation and representation has given rise to the issues of women empowerment and political representatives which forms the major thrust of this emergent research with special emphasis in Enugu state.

Over the years, women have been agitating for empowerment to enable an increase in their levels of political participation all over the world.

In this regard, empowerment implies the creation of an enabling environment where individuals can fully use their capabilities to take charge of their lives.

Women empowerment therefore, means investing in women’s right with legal backing, and moral and financial support to enable women function effectively.

Women empowerment “also involves assessment of women’s needs and designing programmes to address those needs. The aim is to help women gain more control of their lives” (Garba, 1999:1).

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ake, C. (1981) A Political Economy of Africa. USA, Nigeria: Longman Publishers.

Almond, G. and Verba S. (1965); The Civic Culture. Princeton, N.J:, Princeton University Press. Asika, N. (2006) Research Methodology in the Behavioural Science. Lagos: Longman.

Afshar, H. (1996) Women and Politics in the third world. London: Rutledge.

Conquer – Vidrovitch, C (1997) African Women: A Modern History. Boulder: Colo: Westview Press.

Effah-Ahoe S.A (2002) Women in the Development of Nigeria Since Pre-Colonial Times.

Etzioni A, (1970), “Power as a Societal Force’’ In Olsen Marvin (ed) Power in societies, London: Macmillian.

Ezilo, N.J. (2001) Legislative Advocacy for Women’s Human Rights: A Practical Guide to Advocacy Work. Enugu: Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL)

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