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Women Subordination in Ibibio Land

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Women Subordination in Ibibio Land


In Ibibio land and in Nigeria at large, it is observed that the womanhood is reduced to a mere infidel and a second class citizen, hence, there is the commonality of general belief system that the best place for women is in the “Kitchen”.

This trend has brought about tremendous misrepresentation of women right at the level of the family down to the circular society. Ibibio society is patriarchal in nature which is a major feature of a traditional society.

The study set out to examine the issue of women subordination using Uyo metropolis as the study area. To achieve this objective, data ware gathered from 124 respondents resident in the study area. The study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection.

The cluster and random sampling techniques were used. The feminine theory as explained by Charles Fourier served as the theoretical framework for this work.

The simple percentage statistical tool was applied in the analysis process. The findings show that women are naturally made to be subordinated to men despite the policies made against the subordination and discrimination.

The study recommends the: Advocating for equitable distribution of housework, combating cultural practices that oppress women, promoting education of the girl child, challenging practices that promote son preference, and others.


Declaration     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Certification    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Dedication      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Acknowledgements –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Abstract  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of Contents   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

List of Tables  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      viii


1.0  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –

1.1  Background of the Study       –      –      –      –      –

1.2  Statement of the Problems    –      –      –      –

1.3  Purpose of the Study     –     –      –      –      –

1.4  Significance of the Study       –      –      –      –      –

1.5  Research Questions –      –      –      –      –      –

1.6  Research Hypotheses     –      –      –      –      –

1.7  Scope of the Study –      –      –      –      –      –

1.8  Organization of the Study      –      –      –      –

1.9  Limitations of the Study –      –      –      –      –

1.10   Definition of Terms      –      –      –      –      –


2.0  Literature Review    –      –      –      –      –      –

2.1  Gender Subordination, Poverty and Literacy  –

2.3  Culture and the Subordination of Women     –

2.4  Culture: A Vessel for Female Subordination in

the African Novels   –      –      –      –      –      –

2.5  Gender Inequality and its Challenge to Women Development in Nigeria: The Religious Approach  –

2.6  Theoretical Framework   –      –      –      –      –      –


3.1  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –

3.2  Research Design     –      –      –      –      –      –

3.3 Area of Study   –      –      –      –      –      –      –

3.4 Research Population –      –      –      –      –      –

3.5 Sample Population   –      –      –      –      –      –

3.6 Sampling Technique –      –      –      –      –      –

3.7 Method of Data Collection       –      –      –      –      –

3.8  Instrument of Data Collection –      –      –      –

3.9  Validity and Reliability of Instrument     –      –

3.10 Tools for Data Analysis  –      –      –      –      –


4.1  Section A: Personal Data Analysis –      –      –

4.2 Section B (Questionnaire Guide)    –      –      –

4.3  Discussion of Findings    –      –      –      –      –

4.4  Limitations of the Study –      –      –      –      –


5.1 Summary –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

5.2 Conclusion      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

5.3 Recommendations  –      –      –      –      –      –





The subordination of women to men can be seen very often in different situations. For example: irrespective of personal talents, women are usually not called to be heads of committees or chairpersons for social functions.

At the most, they might be included as assistants or committee members for the sole purpose of organizing the cooking and serving of food for most occasions.

Women’s subordination is therefore the relegation, downgrading and demotion of women to a secondary position in relation to men (Author 2002: 23)

Since early times women have been uniquely viewed as a creative source of human life. As individuals, women have participated in essentially all of the activities in human societies.

As a group, however, women have been identified with particular roles ascribed to them by their societies. Marriage and motherhood are the traditional roles of women.

This is not in denial, but women should have a wider choice of ways of life. Throughout history, women generally have fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men.

Wifehood and motherhood were regarded as women’s most significant progressions. Historically, they have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a major source of temptation and evil.

The adoption of this system of inequality was never the result of deliberation, or fore whatsoever of what would be best for humanity or the good order of    society. It simply arose from the dawn of human bondage to some man.


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