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Work-Life Balance among Female Industrial Workers in Onitsha, Anambra State

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Work-Life Balance among Female Industrial Workers in Onitsha, Anambra State.


The main purpose of the study was to determine mainly work-life balance among female  industrial workers in Onitsha, Anambra State.

Specifically, the study sought to determine the influence of long working hours of female industrial workers on family meals in the family, the influence of female work-life balance with regards to family well being., the female work-life balance with regards to housekeeping services and the coping strategies employed by the female industrial workers to improve their work-life balance.

The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The study was carried out in Onitsha Anambra State. The population of this study was a total number of 2,540 women working in small and medium scale industries such as wool garment, hair dressing salon, tailoring shops and those working in bakery and confectionary industries.

The sample for this study was 474 female industry workers. The sample size was determined using Yaro-Yamane formula for a finite population.

Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in this study. In the first stage, stratified random sampling technique was used to group the respondents into married and single, urban and rural, senior and junior workers, government and private owned industry working class women in Anambra state.

The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher from literature based on the objectives of the study. The questionnaire was divided into five parts, A to E. The questionnaire is made up of 35 items divided into sections.

The instrument has a four point rating scale with scoring range of point for point 1strongly agree, point 2 Agree, point 3 Disagree and point 4 Strongly Disagree. The instrument was subjected to face-validation by three experts from the Department of Home Economics Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

. Each validate was served with a copy of the instrument to ascertain the clarity, correctness and suitability of the items of the instrument. The researcher used their corrections, comments, suggestions, and amendments to produce the final copy of the instrument.

To establish the reliability of the instrument, Twenty copies of questionnaire were trial tested on twenty home makers and teachers in Nnewi. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to establish the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded the overall reliability coefficients of 0.85.

The researcher administered and collected the instrument with the help of three research assistants. Some 474 copies of the questionnaire were returned duly completed and formed the basis of analysis.

Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions that guided the study while t-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

The finding of the study showed among others that female workers in the industry come home late from work to prepare their family meal, long working hours have great influence on family meal in families.

The finding of the study showed that industrial female workers maintain unhealthy social life, have poor concentration for their spouse and children due to work and family imbalance and spend less time with their families.

The finding of the study from the test of hypotheses showed that respondents from urban and rural areas did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in their opinion on their work life balance on family well being.

It was found that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean response of senior female workers and junior female workers on their work-life balance as regards to their housekeeping activities.

It was recommended among others that families should attend seminars, workshop and conference in order to gain adequate knowledge on how to integrate work and family life as part of everyday reality.

Industrial policy makers should make flexible policies that will avail the female workers opportunity to attend to non-work demands with minimal interference in work roles.

Government should create a sensitization programme for the general public especially the female industrial workers that will expose them to some coping strategies especially during stressful conditions.


Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
Abstract x


Background of the Study 1
Statement of Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 8
Significance of the Study 8
Research Questions 9
Hypotheses 10
Scope of the study 10


Conceptual Framework 11
· Work 11
· Industrial work 14
· Work-life balance 14
· Female work-life balance 19
Theoretical Framework 26
Role Theory 26
Work adjustment theory 27
Stress Theory 28
Related Empirical Studies 29
Summary of Literature Reviewed 31


Design for the Study 33
Area of the Study 33
Population of the Study 33
Sample and Sampling Technique 34
Instrument for Data Collection 34
Validation of the Instrument 34
Reliability of the Instrument 35
Method of Data Collection 35
Method of Data Analysis 35


Research Question 1 36
Research Question 2 37
Research Question 3 38
Research Question 4 39
Hypothesis 1 41
Hypothesis 2 43
Hypothesis 3 45
Hypothesis 4 46
Findings of the Study 48
Discussion of Findings on Research Question and Hypotheses 50


Re-Statement of the Problem 53
Summary of Procedures Used 54
Major findings of the Study 55
Conclusion 56
Recommendations 56
Implications of the Study 57
Suggestions for Further Studies 57
References 58


Work is something one does to earn a living. It is also a task, duty or function carried out by people as a means of livelihood.

According to Ezeji (2001), work relates to occupation, vocations or profession which applies some physical or mental extortion by which an individual seek to earn an honest living. Okoro (1993), viewed work as any mental or physical activity directed towards the achievement of a goal.

This goal may be for financial gain, salary or the financial reward to be gained. There are different kinds of work individuals engage themselves in. Example of such work includes salaried and non salaried work.

Those that earn salaries or wages from their employers are the salary type of work. These employers may be federal, state or local government or private enterprises. Also, some can be self employed as entrepreneurs to create wealth. This study focuses on the mothers or female who are working in industries in Onitsha.

In Onitsha, there are many establishments and industries at different scales. They employ both men and women according to skills acquired. The female counterparts are mostly young women of child bearing age.

Majority of the people in Onitsha especially women are married with children and at the same time engage themselves in different types of industries.

They perform different types of job and spend long period in the industry to earn a living, e.g. of the these industries are snack and confectionary, wool garment industry tailoring and hair dressing/barbing saloon among others, where these women work for career

These women’s careers are constantly challenged by the necessity of full-time work and their responsibilities and tasks in their various homes.


Adams, G.A King, L.A & King. D. W (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work – family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied psychology. 32 (21), 102 – 115.

Ajayi, F. (2013). Work-family balance among women in selected bank in Lagos State. An Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Lagos State University.

Anna, B. (2010). Women in Academia. A Cross Cultural Perspective on work – life Balance. Retrieved from http//www. claremontm ckenna net/berger/ pdf/beninger dissertation women in academig pdf on October 11, 2012.

Anyakoha, E. & Eluwa, M. (2008). Home management for schools and colleges. Onitsha: Africana First Publishers Limited.

Banett R.C & Rivers (1996). She works/he work: How two – income families are happier, healthier, and better off. San Francisco: C. A. Harper Collins.

Barnett R.C & Hyde, J.S (2001). Women, men, work and family. An expansionist theory: American Psychologist. American of Journal of Psychology, 56, 781 – 796.

Barnett, R.C., Marshall, N. L & Sayer A. (1992). Positive – Spillover effects from job to home a closer look. Journal of Women & Health. 19 (2 &3), 13 – 41.

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