NECO GCE Agricultural Science Questions and Answers

Filed in Exam, NECO News by on February 21, 2024

The NECO GCE Agricultural Science questions form an essential part of the General Certificate Examination (GCE) in Agricultural Science conducted by the National Examination Council (NECO). 

NECO GCE Agricultural Science Questions

These questions may cover various aspects such as crop cultivation techniques, livestock management, farm economics, and sustainable agricultural practices.

This read contains a complete set of questions and answers from the 2023 Agricultural Science exam to assist students in getting ready for their upcoming exams.

NECO GCE Agricultural-Science Questions

Section A

1a. Discuss two features of the following land tenure systems:

(i) Leasehold

(ii) Inheritance

b. List four importance of industries to agriculture.

c. Highlight three major tillage implements used in pre-planting operations. 

d. Mention five farming operations that can be carried out using electrical power.

2a. Suggest three solutions to the following problems in agriculture:

(i) Environmental degradation

(ii) Unpredictable climate

b. State four problems of the Land Use Act of 1978 in Nigeria.

c. Mention three precautions to be taken when using the following machines:

(i) Knapsack sprayer

(ii) Tractor

Section B

3a. Outline three major laboratory procedures involved in experimenting to determine the presence of microorganisms in a soil sample.

b. (i) List three land pollutants in agriculture.

(ii) State three ways of reclaiming a polluted land.

c. Enumerate three ways of improving sandy soil.

d. Mention four ways of preventing the build up of disease pathogens in an irrigated farm.

4a. In a tabular form, state two differences between metamorphic rock and igneous rock.

b. Enumerate four common liming materials for acidic soils.

c. State four side effects of bush burning in soil management.

d. List four irrigation methods that are used for nursery farms.

Section C

5a. (i) Define the taungya system in agriculture.

(ii) List four major forest resources in Nigeria.

b. Discuss the production of oil palm under the following headings:

(i) Method of propagation

(ii) Rainfall requirement

(iii) Spacing in the field

(iv) Fertilizer requirement

(v) Two fungal diseases

c. Enumerate four methods of improving the productivity of pasture crops. 

6a. List four important cultural practices carried out in the production of rubber.

b. Itemise four side effects of chemical control method of weed infestation in a farm.<br>

c. Enumerate four ornamental plants grown in pots for income generation. (4 marks)<br>

d. State four government regulations in forest management.

Section D

7a. Describe the process of egg formation in the following reproductive parts of a bird:

(i) Infundibulum

(ii) Magnum

(iii) Isthmus

(iv) Uterus

b. State four advantages of battery cage system over deep litter system in poultry management.

c. Mention two diseases each that are caused by the following pathogens in cattle:

(i) Virus

(ii) Bacterium

(iii) Fungi

(iv) Protozoan

8a. (i) Enumerate four effects of feed shortage in animal production.

(ii) Name two mineral elements needed by layers during egg production.

b. Distinguish between the following terms in animal reproduction:

(i) Stud mating and pen mating

(ii) Line breeding and cross-breeding

c. List three factors that predispose fishes to diseases in a pond.

d. Highlight three by-products obtained from bee farming.

Section E

9a. Define agricultural finance.

b. In a tabular form, state two differences between subsidy and credit.

c. List two agents of agricultural marketing.

d. Briefly explain the following teaching methods in agricultural extension:

(i) Agricultural show

(ii) Field trip

e. State four reasons farmers find it difficult to adopt new ideas.

10a. Distinguish between the following agricultural economics terms:

(ii) Farm assets and farm liabilities

(ii) Appreciation and depreciation

b. List four types of farm records that should be kept by a farm manager.

c. Enumerate four advantages of mass media as an agricultural extension teaching method.

d. Highlight four factors that affect the rate of adoption of innovation in Agriculture.

Answers to the NECO GCE Agricultural-Science Questions

1a. Features of Leasehold and Inheritance 

1ai. Leasehold

(i) Duration of Tenure

Leasehold is the process where you rent land for a set time, usually a few years to several decades. 

This setup gives you the freedom to use the land, but you don’t own it permanently. 

(ii) Rent payment

In a leasehold, if you’re using someone else’s land, you have to pay the rent.  This payment can be money, crops, or a mix of both. 

It’s a way for the landowner to make some income and also makes sure you, as the tenant, have a responsibility to take care of and improve the land.

(1aii)  Inheritance

(i) Intergenerational Transfer

Inheritance means passing down ownership of land from one generation to the next. This keeps the land in the family, allowing them to keep using it and stay connected to it over time.

(ii) Customary Laws and Traditions

Inheritance is usually guided by the customs and traditions of a community, and these can differ between cultures. 

These rules and practices decide how land gets passed on when the owner passes away. 

This aspect shows how the way land is inherited is influenced by the culture, social norms, and history of a specific society.

b. The Importance of Industries to Agriculture

(i) Industries create a place for farmers to sell their crops, allowing them to make money.

(ii) Industries offer jobs in rural areas, helping people find work and reducing poverty.

(iii) Industries help agriculture grow by bringing in new ideas, research, and technology, making farming more productive.

(iv) Industries give farmers tools and services like machinery, fertilizers, and pest control, making farming better.

c. Major Tillage Implements Used in Pre-planting Operations 

(i) Plough: This tool helps flip the soil, making it smoother and level for planting by breaking up big chunks.

(ii) Disc harrow: With spinning discs, this tool cuts through the soil, clearing away leftover plant bits, and prepping the soil for planting.

(iii) Cultivator: This tool is for lightly working the soil, getting rid of weeds, and loosening the top layer.

d. Farming Operations Using Electrical Power

(i) Watering Crops: Electricity runs pumps and sprinklers to keep crops watered.

(ii) Drying Grains: Electricity operates grain dryers, taking out extra moisture from harvested crops.

(iii) Milking Cows: Machines powered by electricity make milking cows easier, saving manual effort.

(iv) Raising Chickens: Electricity runs lighting and heating systems, creating the right conditions for raising poultry.

(v) Growing in Greenhouses: Electricity controls the climate in greenhouses, keeping the right temperature and humidity for plants.

(2ai) Environmental Degradation

(i) Use natural methods like organic farming, changing crops, and smart pest control to protect the soil and avoid using too many chemicals.

(ii) Try farming techniques that take care of the soil, like not plowing too much, planting cover crops, and adding trees to the mix. 

(iii) Plant more trees and bring back forests to stop soil from washing away and reduce the gases that harm the planet.

(2aii) Unpredictable Climate

(i) Use smart farming methods like better ways to water crops, growing plants that can handle dry conditions, and collecting rainwater to adjust to changing weather.

(ii) Grow different types of crops so that if one doesn’t do well because of the weather, others might still thrive.

(iii) Better predictions of the weather and warnings about extreme events, like droughts or storms, can help farmers get ready for what’s coming.

2b. Problems of the Land Use Act of 1978 in Nigeria

(i) It’s hard for people to own land by themselves, causing problems in getting land for farming and other uses.

(ii) Getting land is a complicated and slow process, leading to delays and corruption.

(iii) People don’t get enough money for their land, causing fights and taking away their way of making a living.

(iv) The way land is managed is not good, causing a lot of paperwork and not using the land well.

(v) Small-scale farmers can’t easily get land to use.

(vi) Communities don’t have much say in what happens with the land, causing problems with the way people live and their traditions.

2ci. Precautions of Knapsack Sprayer

(i) Put on the right safety gear like gloves, goggles, and a mask to protect yourself from the chemicals.

(ii) Read and follow the instructions from the sprayer’s maker on how to mix and spray pesticides or weed killers, including how much to use.

(iii) Don’t spray close to water, important crops, or houses to keep the chemicals from spreading where they shouldn’t.

2cii. Precautions Tractor

(i) Make sure you know how to use the tractor properly and have the right training to avoid accidents and damage.

(ii) Check the tractor often for problems like leaks, bad tires, or parts that aren’t working right, so it stays safe to use.

(iii) Drive the tractor at safe speeds and be careful when turning or going on bumpy ground to avoid tipping over or having accidents.

3a. Major Laboratory Procedures

(i) Getting a soil sample: Use the right tools to collect a bit of soil from where you want. Clean it up by removing any junk and mixing it well to make sure it represents the whole area.

(ii) Making it weaker and spreading it: Take a small bit of the prepared soil and mix it with the volume of sterile diluent.

(iii) Counting and figuring out what’s there: After some time, check the plates for little spots that grow. Count them and see what types they are. 

3bi. Land Pollutants in Agriculture

(i) Pesticides 

(ii) Fertilizers 

(iii) Animal Waste 

(iv) Irrigation Water 

3bii. Ways of Reclaiming a Polluted Land

(i) Plant Power: Using plants to soak up and break down pollutants in the soil.

(ii) Tiny Helpers: Getting little living things (microorganisms) to break down the bad stuff in the soil.

(iii) Soil Boost: Adding natural stuff like compost or manure to make the soil better, so it can naturally get rid of pollutants.

(iv) Stop the Spread: Doing things like plowing specially or planting certain crops to keep the soil in place and stop the pollution from spreading.

3c. Ways of Improving Sandy Soil

(i) Adding Organic Matter: Mixing in natural stuff like compost or manure helps the soil hold more water and have more nutrients.

(ii) Mulching:: Putting a layer of natural cover, like straw or wood chips, on top helps keep the soil moist and prevents it from washing away.

(iii) Mixing in Clay: Adding a bit of clay to sandy soil helps it keep water and nutrients better.

(iv) Changing Crops: Growing different plants, like legumes, from time to time helps make the soil richer by adding good things to it.

3d. Ways of Preventing the Build-Up of Disease Pathogens

(i) Changing the types of plants you grow helps stop pests and diseases from sticking around.

(ii) Regularly clean and disinfect tools and equipment to stop diseases from spreading.

(iii) Using water smartly and not using too much helps avoid letting disease-causing things grow in the soil.

(iv) Plant varieties that can resist diseases to lower the chances of them spreading on the farm

 4a. Differences Between Metamorphic Rock and Igneous Rock

Metamorphic Rock v Igneous Rock

Metamorphic RockIgneous Rock
Comes from changing existing rocks.Comes from cooling melted rock.
Has patterns that can be smooth or bumpy.Can have textures that look either chunky or smooth.

4b. Liming Materials for Acidic Soils

(i) Agricultural lime: This is the most common one. It has a lot of calcium and helps make the soil less sour.

(ii) Dolomite Lime: This has calcium and magnesium, good for soils that need more magnesium. It helps with both sourness and low magnesium.

(iii) Wood Ashes: These can help in small gardens. They have potassium and can make the soil less sour. Be careful, though, as their makeup can vary, so test the soil regularly.

(iv) Crushed Shells: Made from shells like oysters or mussels, these have calcium and slowly make the soil less sour. They’re often used in coastal areas.

(v) Marl: This is clay mixed with calcium. It helps a lot with sour soil and makes the soil structure better. It’s good for places with heavy clay.

(vi) Basic Slag: This comes from making steel and has calcium and other good things. It helps with sour soil, gives calcium, and makes the soil more fertile.

4c. Side Effects of Bush Burning in Soil Management

(i) Soil erosion: When you burn bushes, the soil becomes exposed and can easily wash away with rain or wind. This takes away the top layer of soil and makes the ground less fertile.

(ii) Nutrient depletion: Burning plants removes nutrients in the soil that helps plants grow. This means the soil loses important nutrients and becomes less good for plants.

(iii) Soil compaction: The heat from burning can make the soil particles stick together, making it hard for water to soak in. This can lead to problems for plant roots and make plants grow poorly.

(iv) Loss of beneficial soil microorganisms: Burning can get rid of helpful tiny bugs in the soil that help plants grow. This messes up important processes in the soil.

4d. Irrigation Methods Used for Nursery Farms

(i) Drip irrigation

(ii) Sprinkler irrigation

(iii) Flood irrigation

(iv) Subsurface irrigation

5ai. Taungya is a way of farming where you grow crops and trees together on the same land.

5aii. Major Forest Resources in Nigeria

(i) Timber

(ii) Wildlife 

(iii) Medicinal plants

(iv) Non-timber forest products

5b. Production of Oil Palm

(i) Method of Propagation

Oil palm can be grown in two main ways: using seeds or by making copies of selected varieties. 

Most commonly, we plant seeds from ripe fruit bunches in nursery beds to start growing. 

Another way is to use tissue culture techniques to create copies, or clones, of chosen oil palm types.

(ii) Rainfall Requirement

Oil palm likes a lot of water and grows best in tropical areas. 

It needs around 2,000 to 3,000 mm of rain every year, spread out evenly. 

It can handle a dry period of 1 to 2 months if there’s enough irrigation or added water.

(iii) Planting Space

Oil palm plants need enough space to grow well. 

Typically, they are planted about 9 meters apart between rows and 9 meters between plants in a row. 

This spacing gives the palm’s top enough room to spread out and makes harvesting and managing the plantation easier.

(iv) Fertilizer Requirement

Oil palm needs a lot of nutrients to grow and produce well. 

To make sure it gets what it needs, we use fertilizers like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, along with other essential nutrients. 

The specific type and amount of fertilizer depend on the soil, how old the plantation is, and the local climate.

(v) Two Fungal Diseases

(i) Stem rot: This disease is caused by a fungus called Ganoderma boninense. It infects the bottom of the oil palm, causing it to decay and fall over. 

(ii) Wilt: This disease is caused by another fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, and affects the oil palm’s vascular system. It blocks water and nutrient uptake, making the plant droop and stunting its growth. 

5c. Methods of Improving the Productivity of Pasture Crops

(i) Soil Testing and Fertility Management: Test the soil to see what nutrients and pH it has. Then, use the right fertilizers and lime to make the soil better for plants.

(ii) Irrigation: Make sure plants get enough water by using controlled methods like drip irrigation or sprinklers. This helps keep the soil moisture just right.

(iii) Weed Control: Stop weeds from taking nutrients, sunlight, and space from pasture crops. Do this by mowing regularly, using weed killers, or pulling weeds by hand.

(iv) Seed Selection and Planting: Choose good-quality seeds for the kind of climate, soil, and animals you have. Plant them at the right time and follow the recommended planting ways.

(v) Proper Grazing Management: Use a rotation system for animals to give the pasture plants time to rest and grow back. This prevents them from being overeaten and helps them stay productive.

6a. Cultural Practices in the Production of Rubber

(i) Tapping rubber trees

(ii) Collecting latex

(iii) Coagulating latex

(iv) Smudging or smoking

(v) Rubber sheet processing

6b. Side Effects of Chemical Control Method of Weed Infestation

(i) Soil degradation: Using herbicides a lot can make the soil not as good by messing up its natural stuff and tiny living things.

(ii) Water pollution: Chemicals from treated fields can wash into nearby water and make it dirty, which can be bad for animals that live in the water.

(iii) Non-target plant damage: The weed-killing chemicals might hurt plants you want to keep, like crops, pretty plants, or natural plants.

(iv) Resistance development: Over time, weeds can get used to the chemicals and not be affected, so we might need stronger or more kinds of chemicals.

(v) Health problems for people: If we don’t handle the chemicals right or get too close to them, they can make us sick, like giving us skin problems, trouble breathing, or other long-term issues.

6c. Plants Grown in Pots for Income Generation

(i) Succulents: Succulents are simple plants with many shapes and colors, perfect for both indoor and outdoor gardens.

(ii) Orchids: Orchids are exotic and pretty flowers that last a long time. You can sell them in pots or use them in flower arrangements.

(iii) Lavender: Lavender is a nice-smelling herb grown in pots for its sweet flowers and is used in things like cosmetics, aromatherapy, and cooking.

(iv) Bonsai Trees: Bonsai trees are tiny versions of big trees and look like art. They need careful trimming and care, making them unique and sought after.

(v) Anthuriums: Anthuriums are tropical plants with big, bright flowers in different colors. People love them for their unique blooms and use them in flower arrangements and decorations.

(vi) Healing Aloe Vera: Aloe vera is a succulent known for its healing gel-filled leaves. It’s popular for skincare and health products, making it a good choice for making money.

6d. Government Regulations in Forest Management

(i) Forest Conservation Acts: These laws make sure we don’t cut down too many trees, log too much, or build in the forest.

(ii) Environmental Impact Assessments: Before the government allows big projects or activities in the forest, they might ask for Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs)

(iii) Sustainable Forest Management Guidelines: Governments make rules to guide how we use the forest, like cutting trees, planting new ones, and protecting the different plants and animals living there.

(iv) Wildlife Protection Laws: Forests are home to many different ecosystems and wildlife. To keep them safe, governments make rules about hunting, poaching, and saving endangered species.

(v) Water Resource Management: The government sets rules for using water in and around forests. This helps keep water clean, control how much is taken, and protect areas near rivers and streams.

7a. Egg Formation in Reproductive Parts of a Bird

(i) Infundibulum: The ovum is released from the ovary and enters the infundibulum, the first part of the bird’s oviduct. In the infundibulum, the egg white or albumen is added. 

(ii) Magnum: After leaving the infundibulum, the egg moves into the magnum, which is the second part of the oviduct. In the magnum, the majority of the egg white (albumen) is secreted around the developing yolk. 

(iii) Isthmus: The egg then progresses to the isthmus, the third part of the oviduct.In the isthmus, the inner and outer shell membranes are formed. 

(iv) Uterus: The egg finally reaches the uterus, also known as the shell gland, which is the fourth and last part of the oviduct. The shell of the egg is formed as mineralized materials, primarily calcium carbonate, are deposited on the membranes produced in the isthmus.

7b. Advantages of Battery Cage System

(i) Space Efficiency

(ii) Easier Disease Control

(iii) Reduced Egg Contamination

(iv) Efficient Feed Utilization

7c. Diseases Caused by Pathogens in Cattle 

7ci. Virus

(i) Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD)

(ii) Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): 

7cii. Bacterium

(i) Brucellosis

(ii) Johne’s Disease

7ciii. Fungi

(i) Ringworm

(ii) Aspergillosis

7civ. Protozoan

(i) Coccidiosis

(ii) Trichomoniasis

8ai. Effects of Feed Shortage in Animal Production

(i) Reduced Growth Rates

(ii) Poor Reproductive Performance

(iii) Weight Loss and Emaciation

(iv) Increased Susceptibility to Diseases

8aii. Mineral Elements Needed by Layers During Egg Production

(i) Calcium

(ii) Phosphorus 

8bi. Differences Between Stud Mating and Pen Mating

Stud Mating is the pairing of a male animal (stud) with a female within a designated breeding environment. 

On the other hand, Pen Mating involves providing a group of females with the opportunity to freely interact with a male, both housed in the same pen or enclosure.

8bii. Differences Between Line Breeding and Line Breeding

Line Breeding means breeding animals from the same family to make certain good qualities stronger. Cross-breeding involves having animals from different families or breeds mate with each other.

8c. Factors that Predispose Fishes to Diseases in a Pond

(i) Poor Water Quality

(ii) Overcrowding

(iii) Unbalanced diet 

8d. By-products Obtained from Bee Farming

(i) Beeswax

(ii) Propolis

(iii) Royal Jelly

9a. Definition of Agricultural Finance

Agricultural finance involves managing money and providing funds for various farming activities, such as growing crops, processing them, selling, and distributing agricultural products.

9b. Differences Between Subsidy and Credit

Subsidy and Credit

The government offers financial aid or support to reduce the cost of goods or services.Money borrowed by individuals or businesses, with the understanding that it will be paid back along with interest.
Subsidies are not loans and do not need to be repaid.Credit entails repaying the borrowed amount with interest over a specific time.

9c. Agents of Agricultural Marketing

(i) Farmers

(vi) Exporters

9d. Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension

(i) Agricultural Show

Agricultural shows are occasions where farmers, agricultural professionals, researchers, and various stakeholders come together to display agricultural products, technologies, and practices. 

These events provide a platform for farmers to stay updated on the latest developments in agriculture, engage with experts, and share knowledge and experiences.

(ii) Field Trip

A field trip in agriculture means taking farmers or extension personnel to visit farms, research stations, or businesses related to farming. 

This helps them see and learn directly about different farming practices, technologies, and innovations. 

9e. Reasons Farmers Find it Difficult to Adopt New Ideas

(i) Insufficient awareness: Farmers may face challenges in embracing novel concepts because they lack awareness of technological advancements, modern methods, or innovative practices.

(ii) Resistance to change: Many farmers adhere to traditional practices and may resist change due to a fear of the unknown or uncertainty about the benefits associated with adopting new concepts.

(iii) Financial limitations: The implementation of new ideas often necessitates investments in equipment, infrastructure, or training. Limited financial resources can impede farmers from readily adopting innovative approaches.

(iv) Limited information: In rural areas, farmers may encounter difficulties in accessing information and resources, hampering their ability to stay informed about new ideas or innovations.

(v) Inadequate technical knowledge and skills: Farmers may lack the requisite technical knowledge and skills needed to effectively adopt and implement new ideas.

10ai. Differences Between Farm Assets and Farm Liabilities

Farm assets are the resources under the ownership and control of a farm, including but not limited to land, structures, machinery, livestock, and crops. 

Farm liabilities consist of the debts and obligations held by a farm, encompassing loans, mortgages, and outstanding bills.

10aii. Differences Between Appreciation and Depreciation

Appreciation is the rise in the value of an asset over time, influenced by factors like inflation, market demand, or enhancements made to the asset. 

Depreciation is the loss in the value of an asset over time, attributed to factors such as wear and tear, obsolescence, or market conditions.

10b. Farm Records Kept Farm Managers

(i) Income and expense records

(ii) Inventory records

(iii) Production records

(iv) Sales records

(v) Budget records

10c. Advantages of Mass Media as an Agricultural Extension

(i) Broad Reach: Mass media channels, including television, radio, and the internet, possess the capability to reach a vast audience across diverse geographic locations.

(ii) Cost-effectiveness: Mass media serves as an economical agricultural extension method. This enables the simultaneous delivery of information to a large audience.

(iii) Timeliness: Mass media ensures swift information delivery to farmers, guaranteeing timely access to the latest agricultural techniques, practices, and market trends.

(iv) Visual and auditory impact: Particularly through television and online videos, mass media offers visual demonstrations of agricultural practices, techniques, and innovations.

10d. Factors Affecting the Rate of Adoption of Innovation 

(i) Economic Feasibility: The viability of adopting an innovation from an economic standpoint is important.

(ii) Capital: The availability of financial resources and credit options significantly impacts the adoption of agricultural innovations. 

(iii) Infrastructure Support: The presence of essential infrastructure, including irrigation systems, storage facilities, and transportation networks affects the adoption of agricultural innovations. 

(iv) Knowledge and Awareness: Access to relevant information, training, and technical support is essential for farmers to comprehend and effectively adopt innovations. 

(v) Social and Farmer Networks: Robust social networks and farmer communities enhance the adoption rate. 

We hope these NECO GCE Agricultural-Science questions help students get ready for their exams. Good luck with your studies!

Comments (1)

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  1. shehu Henry kopchi says:

    please when is gce starting

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