Phytochemical and Biological Studies Of Ethanol Extract Of Chrozophora Senegalensis (Lam) A. Juss
The ethanol extract of root of Chrozophora senegalensis use in ethanomedicine to treat diarrhea, rheumatism, taeniasis, stomach ache, inflammation and veneral diseases was subjected to Phytochemical and Biological studies. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard phytochemical procedures which revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins.
Chromatographic separation of the ethylacetate fraction using silica gel led to the isolation of three compounds, identified as 5-hydroxy – 2- (4-hydroxyphenol) – 4 – chromenone – 7- glucose (Apigenin – 7- O- glucoside); 5,7 – dihydroxy-2- (4 hydroxyphenyl) – 4 – chromenone – 3 – glucose (Aromadendrin -3-O-glucoside) and 2 – (3,4 – dihydroxy phenyl) – 3,5,7 – trihydroxy 4 H – chromen 4 – one (Quercetin) using spectrocopic analysis.
The mean number of writhing in acetic acid induced-writhing in mice is 18.8 with normal saline while at dose of 600, 300 and 150mg/kg of ethanol extract has 1.3,1.7 and 3.7 respectively. The standard drug (ketoprofen, 10mg/kg) has 0.6 mean number of writhing.The Anti-infammatory studies showed that at 135min, the mean volume of paw oedema is 0.43 with normal saline which is control while the standard which is ketoprofen (10mg/kg) has 0.29. The ethanol extract at dose of 600, 300 and 150mg/kg has mean volume of 0.26,0.30 and 0.31 respectively.
The extract in analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies showed statistically significant activities when compared to control at p less than 0.05 limits. Biological studies conducted on the ethyl acetate include: acute toxicity using Lorke method and was found to be 2154.1 mg/kg. Analgesic using acetic acid induced writhing, anti-inflammation using carrageenan induced paw oedema test in rats.
Antimicrobial was conducted using Agar well diffusion and tube dilution technique with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureaus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albica and Trichopyton mentaagrophyte as the test organisms with inhibition zones ranging from 15-22mm at 20mg/ml while at concentration of 50mg/ml gave range of 19-25 mm. Ethyl viii acetate extract (20mg/ml) produce zones of inhibition which ranges from 15-22 mm but using 50mg/ml the zone of inhibition ranges between 19-25 mm.
The n-butanol fraction also has activity against the microorganisms tested at 20mg/ml with zone of inhibition between 15-23 mm and at 50mg/ml the range was found to be between 16-26mm. The MIC of ethanol extract, ethylacetate and n-butanol soluble fraction ranges from 0.06 to 0.25mg/ml while the MBC ranges from 0.25 to 1.0mg/ml. This study showed that the plant has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. The study validate the ethnomedicinal claim of the plant.
The term “traditional medicine” refers to ways of protecting and restoring health that existed before the arrival of modern medicine (WHO,1996). As the term implies, these approaches to health belong to the traditions of each country, and have been handed down from generation to generation. In practice, the term “traditional medicine” refers to the following components: acupuncture, traditional birth attendant, mental healers and herbal medicine (WHO, 1996).
Traditional medicines are relatively inexpensive, locally available and are usually readily accepted by the local populace. It was reported that about 60 – 85 percent of the population in developing countries depend on traditional or indigenous form of medicine (African Pharmacopoeia, 1985; Farnsworth, 1988). It is in recognition of these facts that the WHO has been attempting to incorporate traditional medicine officially into the health care systems of developing countries.
Traditional medicine is plagued with disadvantages that include lack of scientific proof of efficacy of its remedies, lack of precise diagnosis of ailments by the traditional practitioners and lack of precise dosage of their medication that are not standardized (D’Arcy, 1991; WHO Drug Information, 1995). It is erroneously believed that herbal medicines as natural products are safe and thus lack toxic effects (D’Arcy, 1991; WHO Drug Information, 1995).
Several reports and reviews have recently shown that these so-called safe herbal preparations are either toxic or have several side effects (D’Arcy, 1991; WHO Drug Information, 1995). Plants are regarded as nature’s bio-chemical factory because they serve as source of various types of chemical compounds. Prominent among these compounds are 18 the plant secondary metabolites which are diverse complex molecules that are valued and exploited by man for their pharmacological and other properties (Miller, 1973).
Over the years, the World health assembly has adopted a number of resolutions drawing attention to the fact that most of the populations in various developing countries around the world depends on traditional medicine for primary health care, that the work force represented by practitioners of traditional medicine is a potentially important resource for the delivery of health care and that medicinal plants are of great importance to the health of individuals and communities.(WHO,1996).
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