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Path Analysis of the Influence of Teacher and Student Variables on Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Physics

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Path Analysis of the Innfluence of Teacher and Student Variables on Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Physics.


This study developed a causal model for the explanation of the achievement of students in physics based on eight selected teacher and student variables. A correlational survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was carried out in both Obollo-Afor and Nsukka Education zones of Enugu state.

Five thousand nine hundred and thirty five (5935) senior secondary two (SS2) physics students for 2015/2016 and two hundred and sixty two (262) physics teachers in all the one hundred and nine (109) government owned senior secondary schools in Obollo-Afor and Nsukka Education Zones of Enugu State formed the target population for the study.

A sample of six hundred and thirty (630) respondents comprising of five hundred and eight five (585) SSII physics students and forty five (45) physics teachers obtained through multi-stage sampling procedure was used for the study.

The first stage involved the use of purposive sampling technique to select two education zones from the six education zones in Enugu State.

The second stage involved the use of proportionate stratified random sampling technique to draw 20 schools from a population of 50 schools in Obollo-Afor Education zone and 25 schools from a population of 59 schools in Nsukka Education Zone.

In each of the schools, one SS 3 physics teacher was purposively selected for the study. Finally, disproportionate stratified sampling technique was used to draw 13 physics students from each of the 45 senior secondary schools that were used for the study making a total of 585 physics students.

Data were collected using Teacher Variable Questionnaire (TVQ), Students’ Attitude to Physics Inventory and Students score proforma (SAPI). The instruments were appropriately validated by two experts in measurement and evaluation, and one expert in physics education all from the department of Science Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka.


Physics is a natural science that is based on experiments, measurements and mathematical analysis with the purpose of finding quantitative physical laws for everything within and outside the environment.

According to Ojediran, Oludipe, and Ehindero (2014), physics is the study of matter and natural events, based mostly on empirical observations and quantitative measurements. Many technical or basic tools and equipment surrounding us work according to the laws of physics.

There are several applications of the principles of physics such as in the fields of medicine, nursing, pharmacy, agriculture, engineering and related disciplines.

Physics is a subject that requires the processes of science to understand the theoretical concepts and their applications in solving practical problems encountered in everyday life.

The curriculum has it that the objectives of studying physics include, among others, to provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society and to acquire essential scientific skills and attitudes as a preparation for the technological application of physics.

Thus, for national development in technology, basic concepts and principles of physics are indispensable.Despite these laudable objectives of physics in secondary schools, students’ achievement in West African Senior School Certificate physics has been poor from 2005 to 2014 (Ojediran, Oludipe, & Ehindero, 2014).


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Adedipe, V.O. (1986). Personological correlates of academic achievement at secondry school levels. Nigerian Journal of Educational psychology,1(1) 151-160

Ademulegun, D. (2001). Monitoring learning achievement of junior secondary school students in Lagos State. A prototype of state assessment. (Unpublished Ph.D Thesis). University of Ibadan.

Adepoju, O.A. (2002). Evaluation of the school conservation programme of the Nigerian conservation foundation. (Unpublished M.Ed project), University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Adodo, S.O. (2005). Correlates of student variables and achievement in integrated science.Journal of Educational Research &Development, 1(2), 208-214

Afolabi,F & Audu,B (2007).Towards a scientific literate public education for sustainable national development. Journal of research in Education.4 (2), 11-14.

CSN Team. 

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