– Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids –
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids – DNA and RNA. Explore these building blocks, their structures, functions, and biological importance.
Understanding the molecular features of genetic material, such as DNA in eukaryotes and bacteria and RNA in viruses, is essential for studying heredity, or the transmission of traits from parents to offspring.
Nucleic Acids Defined
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What Are the Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids?
The monomers (building components) of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA are called nucleotides.
A nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group made up of one to three phosphates make up a nucleotide.
1. Pentose Sugar
The polymer backbone of DNA and RNA is composed of the five-carbon sugar pentose. While DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose.
Regarding the functional group connected to the second carbon position, the two are different. Ribose has a -OH group, whereas deoxyribose only contains hydrogen.
2. Phosphate Group
The phosphate group and pentose sugar together make up the polymer backbone of DNA and RNA. The hydroxyl group is replaced with the group and linked to the fifth carbon.
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3. Nitrogenous Base
Phoebus Levene observed that the genetic material consists of four smaller sub-units that are equally distributed throughout.
These five bases are further divided into the pyrimidines and the purines groups. The purines are adenine and guanine, while the pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
FAQs on What Are the Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids
Faqs on building blocks of nucleic acids
1. What is the building block of nucleic acids and what are its three parts?
The structure of nucleic acids (i.e., DNA) can be likened to a ladder that is made up of alternating steps that are symbolizing its three significant parts: pentose sugar, the phosphate group, and the nitrogenous base.
2. What are the building blocks of the nucleic acids Quizlet?
Nucleotides are the building blocks (monomers) of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA.
3. What are the three building blocks of a nucleotide?
A nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule, nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
4. What is the building block or monomer of nucleic acids?
The monomers of the nucleic acid polymers RNA and DNA are called nucleotides.
5. What are nucleic acids made of?
Nucleic acids are made of nitrogen-containing bases, phosphate groups, and sugar molecules.
Each type of nucleic acid has a distinctive structure and plays a different role in our cells.
6. What are the four building blocks that makeup DNA?
The bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) are the four main components that make up DNA.
7. How many building blocks are in DNA?
These are the four chemical building blocks of the DNA molecule.
They are componants of nucleic acid, which gives DNA it’s tongue-twisting full name: deoxyribonucleic acid.
8. Are nucleotides the building blocks of proteins?
The building blocks of DNA molecules are nucleotides. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
9. What is the process of building nucleic acids called?
The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA in a process called transcription.
Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes.
10. What is the building block of proteins?
The building blocks of proteins are amino acids, which are small organic molecules that consist of an alpha (central) carbon atom linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable component called a side chain.
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