A Hydrochemical Study of the Brine Fields of Awe, Keana And Giza Areas, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria
A Hydrochemical Study of the Brine Fields of Awe, Keana And Giza Areas, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria.
This research work presents findings of the extent and distributions of saline zone and the hydrochemical characteristics of the groundwater of Awe, Keana and Giza areas in the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria.
Staticwater levels(swl) of hand dug wells were measured andthe results used to generate hydraulic head data and hydraulichead map. The static water levels range from 1.0m to 13.5m at Awe, 1.0m to 4.5m at Keana and 2.2m to 9.2m at Giza.
The hydraulic head maps for the three areas show different patterns/directions of groundwater flow for each area. Geophysical investigations, mainly vertical electrical sounding (VES) using Schlumberger electrode configuration array were performed at 47 locations spread across the entire study areas.
Results of the VES revealed that the studyareas are characterized by3, 4 and 5geo-electrical layers with 9 different curve type signatures. Also, results of the VES show that Awe area has the highest occurrence of saline zone, followed by Keana and Giza respectively.
The Benue Trough of Nigeria is one of the most prominent geologic features in West Africa. It extends over a length of 800km trending NNE-SSW from the Niger Delta to the south-west of Lake Chad basin and ranges in width from 130 to 250 km (Figure 1.1).
Due to the large regional extent, studies in the Trough are often divided geographically (though arbitrarily) into upper, middle and lower regions (the approximate boundaries of these regions are given in Figure 1.1.
No concrete line of subdivision can be drawn to demarcate the individual regions, but major localities (towns/settlements) that constitute the depocenters of the different regions have been well documented (Obaje et al., 1999).
The depocenters of the Lower Benue Trough comprise mainly the areas around Nkalagu and Abakaliki, while those of Middle Benue Trough comprise the areas around Makurdi through Yandev, Lafia, Obi, Awe, Keana, Giza, Jangwa to Wukari.
In the Upper Benue Trough, the depocenters comprise Pindiga, Gombe, Nafada, Ashaka (in the Gongolaarm) and Bambam, Tula, Jessu, Lakun and Numan in the Yola arm.
The origin of the Trough (which is still controversial in details) has long been associated with the breakup of Gondwana – the separation of Africa from South America and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.
Occurrences of saline groundwaters as springs, ponds or in dug wells and boreholes are common in parts of the Trough. Prominent outcrops (which commonly support local salt industries) are found in the Lower Benue Trough and Middle Benue Trough (Figure 1.2).
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