Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) Seed Quality And Yield : Current School News

Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) Seed Quality And Yield As Influenced By Manipulating Sowing Dates For The Management of Scab Induced By Elsinoe Phaseoli Jenkins, At Samaru, North-West Nigeria

Filed in Crop Protection, Current Projects by on December 1, 2022

 – Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp) Seed Quality And Yield As Influenced By Manipulating Sowing Dates For The Management of Scab Induced By Elsinoe Phaseoli Jenkins, At Samaru, North-West Nigeria –

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ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) farm at Samaru, North-western Nigeria to investigate effects of sowing dates on incidence and severity of scab on yield and seed quality of cowpea.

The varieties, SAMPEA 6,SAMPEA 8, SAMPEA 11, TVx 3236 and Ife brown were planted at three sowing dates, August 9, 19 and 29 in 2016. The design used was Randomized Complete Block Design(RCBD) with three replications.

Parameters measured were disease incidence, disease severity and yield. Disease incidence and severity scores were taken at weekly intervals for ten weeks, and data was analyzed using SAS statistical software.

Cowpea sown on the first sowing date August 9, had the highest scab incidence, 48.89 %, 54.44 %, 36.67%, 20 % and 13.33 % and severity, 25.11 %, 31.44 %, 18.33 %, 19.56 %, 18.11 % on leaves, stems, peduncles, flower cushions and pod, respectively while plants sown on the third sowing date, Aug 29, had no scab infection.

The varieties, SAMPEA 11 and TVx 3236 had low incidence and severity and can be considered to be moderately resistant to scab.

The yield of cowpea sown on August 9 was the highest (1,792.60kg/ha), followed by that sown on Aug 29 (1,422.20 kg/ha) while cowpea sown on Aug19, had the lowest (1,192.60 kg/ha).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………………………i
DECLARATION………………………………………………………………………………ii
CERTIFICATION……………………………………………………………………iii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………….iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………v
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………vi
TABLE OF CONTENT……………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………xi
LIST OF PLATES……………………………………………………………………..xiii
LIST OF APPENDICES……………………………………………………………xiv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Justification of the Study………………………………………………………2
1.2 Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………………4
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………….……………………….5
2.1 Origin, Distribution and Taxonomy of Cowpea………………………………………..5
2.1.1 Uses and nutritional value………………………………………………………………………….5
2.1.2 Morphology and growth pattern of cowpea…………………………………………………6
2.1.3 Climatic requirement…………………………………………………………………………………7
2.1.4 Cowpea production…………………………………………………………………………………..8
2.1.5 Production constraints……………………………………………………………………………….8
2.2 Elsinoe phaseoli……………………………………………………………………………………….8
2.2.1 Scab……………………………………………………………………………………………………….9
2.3 Effect of Sowing Date on Incidence and Severity of Scab…………………………11
2.3.1 Effect of sowing date on yield of cowpea…………………………………………………..12
2.4 Effects of Scab Infection on Seed Quality………………………………………………..14
2.4.1 Germination test………………………………………………………………………………………15
2.4.2 Electrical conductivity test……………………………………………………………………….16
2.4.3 Accelerated ageing test…………………………………………………………………………….17
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………………………………………….19
3.1 Determination of Effects of Sowing Dates on Scab Infection on Five Cowpea Varieties ……19
3.2 Determination of Effects of Scab Infection on Seed Quality as influenced by Different Sowing Dates…………….21
3.2.1 Germination test………………………………………………………………………………………22
3.2.2 Electrical conductivity tests………………………………………………………………………22
3.2.3 Accelerated ageing test…………………………………………………………………………….23
3.3 Analysis of Data……………………………………………………………………………………..23
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………………………..24
4.1 Effects of Sowing Dates on Incidence and Severity of Scab on Cowpea Leaf……………..24
4.1.1 Interaction of variety and sowing date on incidence and severity of scab on cowpea leaf………………..27
4.2 Effects of Sowing Dates on Incidence and Severity of Scab on Cowpea Stem……………………30
4.2.1 Interaction of variety and sowing date on incidence and severity of Scab oncowpea stem………………32
4.3 Effects of Sowing Dates on Incidence and Severity of Scab on Cowpea Peduncle ……………..35
4.3.1 Interaction of variety and sowing date on incidence of scab on cowpea peduncle…………37
4.4 Effects of Sowing Dates on Incidence and Severity of Scab on Cowpea Flower Cushion………………37
4.4.1 Interaction of variety and sowing date on severity of scab on cowpea flower cushion scab……………………40
4.5 Effects of Sowing Dates on Incidence and Severity of Scab on Cowpea Pod…………………42
4.5.1 Interaction of variety and sowing date on incidence and severity of scab on cowpea pod………….42
4.6 Effects of Sowing Dates and Scab Infection on Yield of Cowpea………………45
4.6.1 Correlation coefficients of scab infected plant parts with yield cowpea……….48
4.6.2 Path coefficient analysis and percent contribution of scab severity on yield of cowpea……….50
4.7 Effect of Scab Infection on Seed Quality of Cowpea………………………………..53
4.7.1 Interaction of variety and sowing date on the germination and accelerate ageing tests…………………55
4.7.2 Correlation coefficients of scab infected plant parts with seed quality of cowpea……………….57
4.7.3 Path coefficient analysis and percent contribution of scab severity on different plant parts on seed quality of cowpea………………..57
4.7.4 Direct and indirect effects of scab severity on seed quality…………………………..61
5.0 DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………………….63
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………….73
6.1 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………73
6.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………….73
6.3 Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………………..74
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………..75
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………………………….91

INTRODUCTION

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, L Walp) is a leguminous crop indigenous to Africa and a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae (Schippers, 2002). It can be grown as sole crop, but more often planted alongside crops such as sorghum, maize or millet (Agbogidi, 2010a).

More than 5.4 million tonnes of cowpeas are produced worldwide, with Africa being the highest producer with nearly 5.3 million tonnes annually (IITA, 2010).

Nigeria, as the largest producer and consumer of cowpea, accounts for 61 % of production in Africa and 58 % worldwide, out of which Nigeria produced 5.1 million tonnes under cultivation area of 3.59 million / ha (NAERLS &FDAE, 2013).

Cowpea is one of the oldest crops known to man and an important food legume because of its nutritional value to man and usefulness as fodder to livestock (Agbogidi, 2010b;Davis et al., 1991).

Its ability to replenish soil nitrogen makes it important in the modern crop farming system in rotation with other crops (Langyintuo et al., 2003).

Also, its drought tolerance, relatively early maturity and nitrogen fixation characteristics fit very well to the tropical (humid) soils where moisture, erosion and low soil fertility is the major limiting factor in crop production (Hall, 2004).

It serves as food security and at the same time can be combined with other recipe (Muoneke et al. 2012).The average yields of cowpea are generally low (Benue State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (BNARDA, 2009).

REFERENCES

Adebitan, T. T., Ikotun T., Fawole, B., Dashiell, K. E. (1992). The influence of cowpeagenotype and cropping pattern on two Colletotrichum diseases of cowpea. Fungi and bacteria associates withmangrove seed and measures for their control. Arab Journal of Plant Protection,18: 28-34.

Afutu, E., Mohammed, K. E., Odong, T. L., Biruma, M. and Rubaihayo, P. R. (2016).Evaluation of Ugandan cowpea germplasm for yield and resistance to scabdisease.

American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 12(2): 1-18.Afutu, E. (2017). Resistance of cowpea to scab disease and diversity of Sphaceloma sp.occurring in Uganda. Ph. D Thesis. Makere University, Uganda.

Agbogidi, O. M. (2010a). Screening six cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp) for adaptation to soil contaminated with spent engine oil. Journal ofEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecoloxicology. 7: 103 – 109.Agbogidi, O. M. (2010b). Response of six cultivars of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.) to spent engine oil. African Journal of Food Science and Technology,1(6):139-142.

Agbogidi, O. M. and Egho, E. O. (2012).Evaluation of eight varieties of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp) in Asaba agro-ecological environment, Delta State,Nigeria. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 1(2): 303-314.Agrios, G. N. (2005).Plant Pathology. (5th ed.). London: Academic Press.

Ahmed, M. U. and Ahmed, H. U. (1994). Disease management, recommendation andfuture plan of oilseeds crop in Bangladesh. In: Proceeding workshop on transferof technology of CDP crops under Research-Extension Linkage programme. pp.46-56.

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