Isolation and Partial Purification of Lectins from the Stem Bark of Ordeal : Current School News

Isolation and Partial Purification of Lectins from the Stem Bark of Ordeal Tree (Erythrophleum suaveolens) and their Possible Larvicidal Activities against Culex quinquefasciatus

Filed in Biochemistry Project Topics, Current Projects by on November 4, 2022

 – Isolation and Partial Purification of Lectins from the Stem Bark of Ordeal Tree (Erythrophleum suaveolens) and their Possible Larvicidal Activities against Culex quinquefasciatus –

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ABSTRACT

Lectins from the saline extract of Erythrophleum suaveolens stem bark, were isolated, partially purified, characterized and evaluated in terms of  their  larvicidal  properties against Culex quinquefasciatus. Purification was done by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at 20% – 90% saturation. The ammonium sulfate precipitate was subjected to gel filtration using Sephadex G-75 resin.

The two fractions with the highest heamaglutinating activity were further subjected separately to ion-exchange chromatography using Sp- Sephadex C-50 resin. The lectins in the crude extract and the purified lectins appeared as five bands at positions 38KDa, 28KDa, 26KDa, 11KDa and 9KDa on a SDS-PAGE electrophoregram.

The lectins were found to be stable at the temperature  range  of 30- 600C and pH range of 3-7. The carbohydrate content of the crude  extract,  Gel I,  Gel II, Ion I and Ion II peaks were 0.04%, 0.04%, 0.03%, 0.02%, and 0.01% respectively and showed specificity to mannose and galactose.

A series of nine concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.0001 mg/L, 0.001 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L, 1mg/L, 5mg/L, 10 mg/L, 50 mg/L and 100mg/L were tested against the third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and their percentage mortalities and LC50 values were  obtained.

The crude extract of Erythrophleum suaveolens show very high larvicidal activity with 96% mortality achieved at a concentration of 100 mg/L and had an LC50 of 4.39 mg/L.

The gel peaks of Erythrophleum suaveolens showed larvicidal activities to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae with 74.67% and  69.33% mortality achieved  at  a  concentration of 100 mg/L and had LC50 of 43.73mg/L and 43.65mg/L respectively.

The ion exchange purified extracts of Erythrophleum suaveolens showed low larvicidal activity to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae with 10.67% and 9.33% mortality achieved at a concentration of

100 mg/L respectively. These results suggest that the saline stem bark extract of Erythrophleum suaveolens is promising as a larvicide against mosquito larvae and can be used directly in small volumes in aquatic habitats and in  mosquito  population  management programme.

INTRODUCTION

Insect transmitted diseases are important health problems in the world. These vectors are insects such as mosquitoes (Roberts, 2002).

Mosquitoes are among the most important group of insects in terms of their medical importance to both humans and animals. Most insecticides are non-selective, not biodegradable and can be harmful to other  organisms  and to the environment.

An approach to obtain new efficient, safe  and  selective insecticides is the study of natural models such as the defensive mechanisms of plants (Ciccia et al., 2000).

Bioactive organic compounds produced by plants can act  as  repellant, food deterrents, growth inhibitors, and toxins (Ezeonu et al., 2001; Carlini and Grossi-de-Sá, 2002).

Thus, crude plant extracts have been screened as natural and biodegradable forms to control pests and vectors of infectious diseases (Omena et al., 2007).

Plant essential oils are, in some cases, highly active and economically viable for Insect control (Silva et al., 2008). The larvicidal activity of essential oils from Hyptis fruticosa, Hyptis pectinata and Lippia gracilis has been reported (Silva et al., 2008).

REFERENCES

Abbiw, D.K. (1996). Misuses and abuses in self-medication  with medicinal plants: the  case of Erythrophleum in Ghana. In: van der Maesen, L.J.G., van der Burgt, X.M. and van Medenbach de Rooy, J.M. (Editors). The biodiversity of African plants. Proceedings of the 14th AETFAT Congress, 22–27 August 1994, Wageningen, Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp. 714–718.

Abubakar, M.S and Abdurahman, E.M. (1998). The useful plants in the control of insects pests. Journal of Herbs Speices and Medicinal plants 6(2):49-52

Abubakar, M.S. (1995). The investigation of insecticidal activity of some Nigerian plants. In: proceeding of the Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy Biennial Scientific Confrence Jos, Nigeria. 16pp.

Adedotun, A.A., Aya, E.L, and Dabiri,O.O.(2006).The composition and Antifungal properties of Erythrophleum suaveolens Gill and Perr. (Leguminosae)  seeds  and oil. Life Science Journal 3(4): 61-64.

Adeoye, B.A. and Oyedapo, O.O. (2004). Toxicity of Erythrophleum guineense  stem- bark: Role of Alkaloidal fraction. African Journal of Traditional and Comprehensive Medicine 1: 45-54.

CSN Team. 

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