Constraints to Female Leadership Roles in Sports in Nigeria

Filed in Articles by on November 17, 2022

¬†– Constraints to Female Leadership Roles in Sports in Nigeria –

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the “Constraints to Female Leadership Roles in Sports in Nigeria”. To achieve the purpose of this study, ex-post facto research design was used.

The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire using Likert rating scale.

The questionnaire contained two (2) sections, Section A contained (7) statements on personal data of the respondents, while section B contained forty (40) statements on perceived constraints for female leadership roles in sports in Nigeria.

The questionnaire thus developed was administered on a total of three hundred (300) respondents from the twelve (12) states randomly selected from the six (6) geo-political zones of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

The data thus collected were statistically analysed at Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis to determine the extent of the perceived constraints for female leadership roles in sports in Nigeria.

Each hypothesis was tested at an alpha level of 0.05. The results of the study revealed the following: Age, marital status, gender and experience served as constraints for female leadership roles in sports.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i

DECLARATION………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii

CERTIFICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………………………. v

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………………….. xiii

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS……………………………………………………….. xii

CHAPTER ONE

  • _ Introduction…………………………………. 1
  • _ Statement of the Problem………………………. 3
  • _ Significance of the Study……………………… 5
  • _ Basic Assumptions…………………………….. 6
  • _ Hypotheses…………………………………… 7
    • Major Hypothesis………………………………………………7
    • Sub-Hypothesis 1…………………………….. 7
  • Major Hypothesis II………………………………………………7
  • Sub-Hypothesis II………………………………………………8
  • Delimitations of the Study………………………. 8
  • Limitations of the Study………………………… 9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction……………………………….. 10
  • The Concepts of Leadership…………………… 12
  • Female Leadership Roles and Implications for Sports Development 17
  • Women and Sports Participation……………….. 19
  • Problem of Female Participation in Sports……… 21

Physical/Physiological Problems………………. 22

  • Physiological Problem……………………….. 24

Emotional Problem…………………………… 24

  • Socio-cultural Problem………………………. 25

Economic Problem……………………………. 26

  • Sports Women and Leadership………………….. 27

Nigerian Situation in Female Leadership……….. 31

  • Constraints for Female Leadership Roles in Sports. 34

Socio-cultural Constraints…………………… 36

Religious Constraints……………………….. 37

Level of Education Constraints……………….. 38

Psychological Constraints……………………. 39

  • Developing Managerial Skills for Female Leadership in Sports 40

Managerial Skills Required by Women Leaders in Sports Administration……………………………… 41

Developing Managerial Roles for Women Leaders in Sports Administration……………………………… 42

  • Summary……………………………………. 43

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction………………………………….. 46
  • Research Design……………………………….. 46
  • Population……………………………………. 47
  • Sample……………………………………….. 47
  • Instrumentation……………………………….. 50
  • Validation of Instruments………………………. 50
  • Administration of Instrument……………………. 51
  • Data Collection and Scoring…………………….. 52
  • Statistical Techniques…………………………. 53

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  • Introduction………………………………….. 54
  • Results………………………………………. 54
  • Discussion……………………………………. 71

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Summary………………………………………. 73
  • Conclusions…………………………………… 75
  • Recommendations……………………………….. 76
  • Recommendations for Further Research…………….. 77

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………. 79

APPENDICES 84

INTRODUCTION

Sports have been considered a social construct of masculinity where physical prowess is demonstrated.

Consequent upon the sudden change in societal ideology concerning gender equality as well as wide adoption of Brighton Declaration (1968) on Women and Sport, the sport scenario has witnessed dramatic changes worldwide.

As a result of this, the number of female in sports has increased considerably and yet most of the executive positions, especially in sports organisations are held by men.

Women have been more or less ignored. This shortcoming has become more evident especially in the area of leadership roles in sports (Adeyanju, 1992).

According to Adeyanju, (1992 ) she stated that men often find it difficult to profer lasting solutions to the physical, psychological and emotional problems of female athletes.

This view supports the theory of Hautton and Silkin (1992) who reported that female athletes are usually more open about personal problems with female trainers and at the same time they are sometimes reluctant to seek the services of male trainers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Acker, (1990). “Hierarchies, Jobs, bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organisations”.Gender and Society, 4 (2), 139-158.

Adeyanju, F.B. (1987). Female Participation in competitive Sports and the Conflicting Sex Role Expectations, Paper presented at Sports Psychology Association of Nigeria Second National Conference, University of Maiduguri, June.

Adeyanju, F.B. (1992). Female Leadership Role: Implication for Sports Development in Nigeria. In Omoruan et al (eds) Multidimensional Perspectives of Women Participation in Sports, pg. 108-122.

Adeyanju, F.B. (1992). Nigerian Women and Sports Participation: Stereotypical Misconceptions, Reality and Future Projections” In Psycho-social Perspectives. Adedoja, T.A. and Mshelia, B.S. (eds.) Maiduguri, Fourth Dimension Publishers Limited.

Barrow, H.B. (1977). Man and Movement: Principles of Physical Education.Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger.

Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation. New York, Avenue Press.

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