Effects of Aqueous Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Mucuna Pruriens and Chromolaena Odorata on Isolated Uterine Smooth Muscle of Albino Rats

Filed in Articles by on November 25, 2022

 – Effects of Aqueous Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Mucuna Pruriens and Chromolaena Odorata on Isolated Uterine Smooth Muscle of Albino Rats – 

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The contractile activity of M. pruriens and the relaxatory property of C. odorata was investigated using in vitro methods in rat. M. pruriens caused a dose -dependent increase in uterine muscle contraction with a maximum peak in amplitude with 0.57 mg/ml of the extract, and an EC50 of 2.7 mg/ml.

The contraction was unaffected by atropine sulphate (0.042 µmol), but abolished by isoprenaline (0.06-0.23 µmol), salbutamol (0.012-0.4 µmol) and  adrenaline  (16  nmol).Uterine  muscle  contractions  were  enhanced  by  propranolol (1 µmol) in a dose- dependent manner.

Prazosin (0.069-0.14 µmol) and atipamezole (3.3-13.7 nmol) were not able to abolish contractions stimulated by the extract however, 0.2 µmol of cyproheptadine caused 86% abolition of the extract –induced uterine contraction. The mechanism of Ca2+ mobilization in uterine muscle cells by M. pruriens isolated was also investigated in the rat.

Uterine muscle contractions were significantly attenuated (100%; P < 0.01)  in Ca2+-free physiological salt  solution and in solutions containing verapamil (0.007- 0.14 mmol). Contractions stimulated by M.  pruriens were unaffected by amiloride  (1.1-2.1µmol) in Ca2+-containing media.

It is concluded that M.pruriens causes uterine muscle contraction by mobilizing external Ca2+ through a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. On the other hand, C. odorata caused a dose –dependent decrease in spontaneous contracting uterine tissue, giving an EC50 of 1.0 mg/ml.










  • Background of the Study 1
  • Statement of the Problem 3
  • Aim of the Study 3
  • Significance of the Study 4


  • Introduction 5
  • Practice of Traditional Medicine 6
  • 1 Ancient use of Herbal Preparations 6
  • 2 Traditional Medicine in Africa 6
  • 3 Herbal Medicine Today 7
  • Effects of Medicinal Plants on Female Reproductive Functions———————— 8
  • Review on pruriens and C. odorata 10
    • Folkloric uses of pruriens and C.odorata—————— 10
    • Botanical Profile of Mucuna pruriens and Chromolaena odorata– 11
    • Phytoconstituents of pruriens and C.odorata———– 13
    • Scientific Evaluation of pruriens and C.odorata—– 14
  • Physiology of Female Reproduction 16
  • Mechanism of Uterine Spasms and Relaxation—— 18
  • G-proteins and G-protein Coupled Receptors Involved in Myometrial Contraction—– 23
  • Agents that Control Uterine Tonicity 25
  • 1 Uterotonics 25
  • Tocolytics 27


  • Materials Used 31
  • 1 Drugs, Chemicals and Reagent 31
  • 2 Equipments and Glassware 32
  • Extraction Studies 32
  • In vitro Biologic Studies 33
  • 1 Animals 33
  • 2 Tissue Preparation 34
  • 3 Experimental Procedure (s) 35
  • Statistical Analysis of Data 35


  • Percentage Yield of Extract 36
  • Concentration-Response and Mechanism of Action of pruriens—————————- 36
    • Concentration-Response Relationship and   EC50   of      pruriens       in Normal Physiological Salt Solution      36
  • Effect of Atropine Sulphate on pruriens and Carbachol Induced Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions 38
  • Effects of Selective and Non- Selective β- Adrenergic Agonists on pruriens Contractile Activity        40
  • Effects of α1 and α2- Adrenoreceptor Antagonists on pruriens Mediated Uterine Smooth Muscle Contraction 44
  • Effects of 5-HT Receptor Antagonist on pruriens Mediated Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions 46
  • Role of Ca2+ on pruriens Induced Uterine Smooth Muscle Contraction—– 48
  • Uterine Muscle Responses to Aqueous Ethanolic Leaf Extract of odorata— 56
    • Concentration-Response Relationship and EC50 of odorata— 56
    • Effect of odorata on Acetylcholine- Induced Uterine Smooth Muscle Contraction     58
  • Effect of Propranolol on odorata –Mediated Relaxation of Acetylcholine -Induced Contraction 60
  • Effect of odorata on Carbachol -Induced Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions  62
  • Inhibitory Effect of odorata on Oxytocin- Induced Uterine Smooth Muscle Contraction 64
  • Effect of odorata on CaCl2 Response-Curve and on K+– Induced Uterine Tissue Depolarization 66


  • Discussion— 68
  • Conclusion 75 REFERENCES 76
  • APPENDICES      92


Man and animals live in equilibrium with the plants surrounding them, using these plants as sources of food and as medicine intuitively or through years of trials and error (Olowokudejo et al., 2008).

The use of plants as medicine to cure or prevent illness and to lubricate the wheels of social interaction at the interpersonal and group level is a behaviour that predates civilization, and in today’s civilisation it is found in every society irrespective of its level of development and sophistication (Odugbemi and Akinsulire, 2006).

To date, the herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75 to 80% of the world’s population (mainly in the developing countries) for primary health care because of better compatibility with the human body and cost effectiveness (Kamboj, 2000).

In Nigeria, the majority of citizens still use medicinal plants, and visit traditional medicine practitioners for their health care needs and to treat their livestock too (Odugbemi and Akinsulire, 2006).

The ratio of traditional – health practitioners to the population is given as 1:110 in Nigeria, giving credence to the fact that more people use herbal medicine than orthodox medicine.

Nigerian herdsmen have also been known to treat their livestock with herbal preparations in form of infusions, decoctions, inhalation and topical applications (Abu et al., 2009).


Abramovici, A., Cantu, J., and Jenkins, S.M. (2012). Tocolytic Therapy for Acute Preterm Labor. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 77–87.

Abu, A.H., Ofukwu, R.A. and Mazawaje, D. (2009). A Study of Traditional Animal Health Care in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. American- Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3 (3): 468- 472.

Adlercreutz, H. and Mazur, W. (1997). Phyto-oestrogens and Western Diseases. Ann Med, 29:95-120. Agharkar, S.P. (1991). Medicinal Plants of Bombay Presidency. Scientific Publication, Jodhpur, India,1–2.

Aguilar, J. and Reyley, M. (2005). The Uterine Tubal Fluid: Secretion, Composition and Biological Effects. Animal Reproduction, 2:91–105.

Ahn, H.Y., Karaki, H. and Urakawa, N. (1988). Inhibitory Effects of Caffeine on Contractions and Calcium Movement in Vascular and Intestinal Smooth Muscle. Br J Pharmacol, 93 (2): 267–274.

Aimun, A.E.A., Robert, G., Arpad, M., Andrea, V., Mahmoud, M.E.M., Judit, H. and George, F. (2010). Uterus-Relaxing Study of a Sudanese Herb (El-Hazha). American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 6 (3): 231-238.

CSN Team.

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