Effects of Oxygenates on Neem and Tigernut Oil Methyl Ester

Filed in Articles by on November 5, 2022

Effects of Oxygenates on Neem and Tigernut Oil Methyl Ester.


Biodiesel is a biodegradable, environment-friendly, renewable, and energy-efficient fuel. It is becoming the most prominent alternative to petro-diesel. Due to current environmental concerns, the quality and properties of biodiesel have to be optimized to remove its limitations.

The use of oxygenates additives has proved to play such an important role. The purpose of this research work was to compare the effects of oxygenates on biodiesel properties such as viscosity, heat content, density, specific gravity, and flash point, pour, and cloud point.

Tiger and neem oil were extracted from tiger and neem seed and were used to produce biodiesel. The properties of produced biodiesel were studied and compared to ASTM standards.

Oxygenates additives (methanol, ethanol and diethyl ether) were added to the biodiesel at different ratios (10%, 20%, and 30%) to study their effect on the quality of biodiesel produced.

The kinematic viscosity of pure Neem Oil Methyl ester (NOME) and Tiger oil Methyl Ester (TOME) at 400C were found to be 5.582mm2s-1 and 4.317mm2s-1 respectively. The lowest value of kinematic viscosity was seen to be 1.582mm2s-1 for NOME70:30DE and 1.5537mm2s-1 for TOME70:30 DE.

The densities of the blends biodiesel were found to be in the range of 0.82932- 0.8783g/ml. The heat content and flash point of biodiesel blends were also studied in the experiment. We observed that blending biodiesel with oxygenates can be a very good way to improve the quality and properties of biodiesel.


Abstract i

CHAPTER1.0 Introduction 1

  • Biodiesel 1
  • Biodiesel over biofuels 2
  • Tigernut 2
  • Neem seed 3
  • Biodiesel production 3
  • Oxygenates 5
    • Physical properties of oxygenates 6

1.7 Aims and significance 7

CHAPTER2. Literature review 8

  • Free Fatty Acids 8
  • Optimization by two-step transesterification 9
  • Emissions of particulates 10
  • Density and Viscosity 12
  • Octane and cetane number 13
  • Cloud and pour points 13

CHAPTER 3.0 Materials and Methods 14

  • Extraction of Tiger oil from Tigernut 14
  • Set up for oil solvent extraction 15
  • Neem oil extraction process from Neem seed 15
  • Biodiesel production from Tigernut and Neem seed 16
    • Transesterification reaction 16
    • Acid esterification 16
    • Base transesterification 16
    • Characterization of biodiesel from Tiger and Neem oil 17
    • GC-MS and infrared spectroscopy of the oil extracted and biodiesel produced from oil 17

3.4.6. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) 17

3.4.7 Infrared spectroscopy (IR) 18

  • Blending of biodiesel from tiger and neem oil with oxygenates 18
    • Heat content 18
    • Density 18
    • Specific gravity 19
    • Viscosity 19
    • Flashpoint 19
  • The percentage yield 20
  • GC-MS of extracted tiger oil 21
  • Infrared spectroscopy 23
  • Characteristics of biodiesel produced 26
    • GC-MS of Neem Oil Methyl Ester 26
    • GC-MS Tiger Oil Methyl Ester 27
  • Kinematic Viscosity 27
    • Effect of oxygenates on viscosity Tiger Oil Methyl Ester (TOME) 28
    • Effects of oxygenates on the viscosity of Neem Oil Methyl Ester (NOME) 29
  • Effects of oxygenates on the density of TOME 30
  • Effects of oxygenates on the density of Neem Oil Methyl Ester (NOME) 31
  • Effects of oxygenates on specific gravity 32

References 35


Depletion of fossil fuels, increasing greenhouse effects and evolution in energy demands have led to the search for new alternatives to fossil fuels. Researchers proved that many sources of fossil fuels around the world are nearly close to their maximum production.

This simply means that fossil is not a sustainable source of energy and there is a limited supply of them (sivalakshmi, 2011). The only solution to this issue was to look and develop alternatives sources of energy (biofuel).

Among biofuels alternatives, biodiesel was found to be the most effective one. Many researchers have studied on advantages of biodiesel as biofuel, its production, and characterization.


Biodiesel is a biodegradable, environment-friendly, renewable, energy-efficient fuel that is used as a substitute for fossil fuel to solve the crisis in fossil fuel diminution and environmental degradation.

It is known that biodiesel has the ability to be used as pure (vijayan v, 2013). However, due to the current concerns on the environment; the properties of biodiesel have to be improved in order to reduce problems related to its fuel properties.

Because of this, recent researchers are not only interested in biodiesel production, but maximization of the biodiesel quality and characteristics.


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Anon., 2014. S. Imtenan, h masjuki, m. Varman, ashrafur rahman. Energy conversion and management.
Barminas jt, m. H. K. D. T., 2013. A preliminary investigation into the biofuel characteristics of tigernut(cyperus esculentus).
Elkady, m. Z. A. &. B., 2009. Different techniques for the production of biodiesel. Journal of chemistry.
Gambo, a. A. D. A., 2014. Tigernut (cyperus esculentus): composition, products, uses and heath benefits. Journal of pure and applied sciences.
H.Muthu, s. K. V. K. S. N., 2010. Synthesis of biodiesel from neem oil using sulfated zirconia via tranesterification. Brazilian journal of chemical engineering, volume i, pp. 2-7.

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