Impact of Process Approach on Questioning Preference, Academic Achievement and Retention Span Among Chemistry Students

Filed in Articles by on July 26, 2022

Impact of Process Approach on Questioning Preference, Academic Achievement and Retention Span Among Chemistry Students.


This study investigated the Impacts of Process Approach unquestioning Preference, Academic Achievement and Retention Span among Chemistry students in Senior Secondary School (SS2).

A sample of 78 students selected from two secondary schools in Zaria Metropolis were used as the study sample from a population of 1,241 students from 10 schools. The two schools randomly selected, were found after matching them, to be equivalent academically.

One of the schools served as the control group and the other serves as the experimental group which was exposed to the science process teaching approach while the control group was exposed to lecture-based instruction.

Topics taught are state of matter, change of state, and the kinetic theory of matter, Gas laws, Acid-Base reactions and chemical reaction. The choice of these concepts is considered suitable because they are some of the difficult areas students failed in exams.

A researcher-developed Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) with a reliability coefficient of 0.73, was used to collect data for pretest, posttest and post-posttest (Extended test) used to test the four null hypotheses.

The data collected were analyzed using t-test statistics, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe‘s test at a significance level of P≤0.05.

Results indicated that (i) the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group in their academic achievement after undergoing the experimental treatment of science process teaching approach

(ii) the level of retention was significantly high for students taught using Science Process Teaching Approachwhen compared with those taught using lecture Method

(iii) Science Process Teaching Approach was found to be more effective in enhancing cognitive questioning preference of chemistry students at the senior secondary school level.

Based on these findings, a number of recommendations were made; (1) there is a need for the improvement of the Chemistry conditions and practices existing in Nigerian schools through the use of SPTA(2)  there is a need to employ science process-based instruction in the senior secondary schools as a means to reduce academic failure and enhance retention span among science students in the  senior secondary schools

And (3) there is also a need for training and retraining of science teachers towards effective use of the Science Process Approach in the teaching of chemistry at SSS among others.

Table of Contents

Title Page   i

Declaration            ii

Certification           iii

Dedication              iv

Acknowledgements            v

List of Abbreviations.         vi

Definition of Terms.         vii

List of Tables                      viii

List of Figures                     x

List of Appendices              xi

Table of Contents               xii

Abstract                                 xv

Chapter One: Problem

  • Introduction 1
  • Statement of the Problem 9
  • Objectives of the Study 11
  • Research Questions 12
  • Null Hypotheses 12
  • Significance of the Study 13
  • Scope of the Study 14
  • Basic Assumptions 14

Chapter Two: Literature Review

  • Introduction 15
  • Nature and Teaching of Chemistry in Senior Secondary School— 15
  • Methods of Teaching Chemistry 18
    • erstanding Chemistry 20
  • Science Process Teaching Approach 24
    • Lecture Teaching Method 30
  • Psychological Basis for Teaching Science by Process Approach—— 30
  • Concept of Cognitive Taxonomy 34
  • gnitive Skills 46
  • Questioning and Using Cognitive Structures————-54
  • Cognitive Questioning Preference 56 2.1 Instructional Strategy and Retention Ability          60
  • Instructional Strategy and Academic Achievements in Chemistry————– 62
  • Retention Span and Academic Achievement———————— 68
  • Overview of Similar Studies 70
  • Implications of the Literature Reviewed on the Present Study———–81

Chapter Three: Methodology

  • Introduction 83
  • Research Design 83
  • Population of the Study 85
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques 86
  • Instrumentation 88
  • Validity of the Instrument (CAT) 90
  • Reliability of the Instrument (CAT) 90
  • Pilot Testing 91
  • Administration of Treatment 93
  • Data Collection Procedure -96
  • Data Analysis 97

Chapter Four: Analysis, Discussion and Result

  • Introduction 100
  • Data Analysis and Results 100
  • Summary of Findings 110
  • Discussion of Results 110

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Introduction 116
  • Summary 116
  • Summary of Major Findings 118
  • Conclusion       118
  • Contributions to Knowledge 119
  • Recommendations ———-121
  • Limitations of the Study——122

5.8 Suggestions for Further Study—– 122

References                 124

Appendices                       134


Chemistry as one of the physical sciences deals with the nature of matter; its properties and its changes in different conditions. Chemistry according to Zohar (2004) should be studied to improve man‘s knowledge and enhance his understanding of his environment for his survival.

The subject as shown by Ezeliora (2010) is at the core of every technology that is enjoyed today. According to Ezeliora, (2010) the power of chemical science creates as a whole an enabling infrastructure that delivers food, medicine and materials which are the hallmarks of modern life.

Today its significance as a core subject in the study of medicine, several technologically based courses, pharmacy and engineering is indisputably important as stipulated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2008).

Therefore, Chemistry education has a fundamental role to play in providing solution to several technological and socio-economic issues confronting man as well as improve scientific literacy (Neshitt-Hawes, 2005 & Ezeliora 2010).

Chemistry has also been perceived by students at the various level of the educational sector particularly in secondary school as very difficult to understand (Ezeliora 2003). Majority of the students perceived Chemistry as a body of isolated facts to be memorized, lacking relevance to reality which has led to lack of interest in it by students (Ezeliora 2003).

For many students, Chemistry is first a classroom affair. Echodain Ezeliora (2010) revealed that very rarely do students know that the acid work in the Chemistry laboratory is found in the farm, at home and at play.

This wrong perception of Chemistry by students has resulted in low entrance by students into Chemistry and Chemistry related courses both at the secondary school and tertiary level of studies, and of course performance has not been encouraging either (Zohar, 2004; Aksela, 2005 & Ezeliora 2010).


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