Social Environment and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Social Studies

Filed in Articles by on July 30, 2022

Social Environment and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Social Studies.


The study was carried out to investigate the influence of the social environment and academic performance of secondary school students in social studies in Uyo Local Government Area. In order to achieve this purpose, two research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

Survey research design was adopted for the study. The target population for the study was 2350 students in the junior secondary classes in public schools in Uyo Local Government Area during 2017/2018 academic session.

Purposive random sampling technique was used to select 25 students from each school. Four schools were used and this amounted to a total of 100 students.

The instruments used in the study were titled “Social Environment and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Social Studies” (SEAPSS) and “Social Studies Achievement Test”.

It was used to collect data from the respondents. The face and content validation of the instruments was carried out by the researchers’ supervisor and experts in Tests and Measurement.

Corrections were made based on the suggestions they gave. The reliability of the instrument was obtained using PPMC and it yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.944 which was confirmed as being reliable.

Mean and standard deviation was used to answer all research while independent t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 of significance.

The result of the analysis revealed that the availability of school facilities and school location has a significant influence on students’ academic performance in Social Studies.

It was concluded that the school environment has an influence on students’ academic performance in Social Studies. It was recommended among others that government and school administrators should ensure that schools are well facilitated.


Title page               i

Declaration           ii

Certification            iii

Dedication                       iv

Acknowledgement               v

Table of Contents            vi

Lists of Tables               vii

List of Figures                 viii

List of Appendices           ix

Abstract                   x


1.1      Background of the Study                 1

1.2      Statement of the Problem               6

1.3      Purpose of the Study                   6

1.4      Research Questions                   7

1.5      Research Hypothesis                     7

1.6      Significant of the Study         8

1.7      Delimitation                         8

1.8      Limitation                   9

1.9      Definition of Terms                 -9


2.1      Theoretical Framework     –            11

2.2      Conceptual Framework     –            17

2.3      Relevance of Social Environment              20

2.4      Social Environment            –       24

2.5      Concept of Academic Performance          26

2.6      Social Environment and Academic Performance      27

2.7      Empirical Studies    –                     3


3.1      Research Design      –                35

3.2      Area of Study           –        36

3.3      Population of the Study    –           38

3.4      Sample and Sampling Technique            39

3.5      Instrumentation      –                39

3.6      Validation of the Instrument       40

3.7      Reliability of the Instrument       41

3.8      Method of Data Analysis             42


4.1      Data Analysis           –            43

4.1.1  Test of Hypothesis 1           44

4.1.2  Test of Hypothesis 2               45

4.2      Discussion of Findings            47


5.1      Summary      –              49

5.2      Conclusion    –            50

5.3      Recommendations               51

5.1      Suggestions for Further Study     –      51

References   –           –                52

Questionnaire –       –              56


Background of the Study

Social environment before now has been considered as one of the factors that could affect academic performance in secondary schools.

Hence it has little or no attention in educational discourse and consideration. But over the past decade, a remarkable study has indicated a correction between the environment and academic performance of students.

Social environment plays a vital role in the life of every individual whether a student, teacher, employer or employee. Though some people are yet to believe that environment brings about performance.

Umar (2010) “The effect of social factors on students’ academic performance in Nigerian institutions” noted that social environment comprises of factor that place the role in academic performance and this have a direct or indirect relationship with students.

Thus, social environment has also been emphasized as an essential requirement for smooth teaching process to take place (National teachers Institute, NTI 2008).

This is because students study habits are to a large extent tied to it. A good social environment presents good academic performance as a lifelong enterprise and enables students to discover appropriate value system that can be either compass for self-awareness and national consciousness.

Most of our schools have no light, insufficient facilities, sick building and no ventilations. Under these conditions, the health of students and teachers may be adversely affected, which will in turn affect the students.

However, the societal expectation of quality output from the training institutions makes students the primary focus of attention in any instructional program, and the better social environment (school), the better it can meet the goals of education and the society in general.

Such goals include, equipping students with desirable skills, knowledge and attitude that will enable them to work and live in the society of knowledge.

Teachers are expected to make teaching the learners cantered and create enabling environments for students to interact with learning materials in other to concretize their knowledge and skills so that they can become self-confident and self-reliant and contribute meaningfully to the socio-economic development of the society.


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