Impact of self-directed Learning Strategies on the Written English Performance of Selected Senior Secondary schools in Kaduna State

Filed in Education by on June 26, 2022

Impact of self-directed Learning Strategies on the Written English Performance of Selected Senior Secondary schools in Kaduna State.


The realizations of educational achievements have been a difficult thing all over the world. This is undoubtedly as a result of the approaches used in teaching and learning. The role of teacher to teach and dictate the pace and mode of learning has been an obstacle towards achieving educational goals at various levels of educational system.

Students are rarely given opportunity to exercise their thinking capacities to produce something meaningful. Teachers’ role is always ‘sage on the stage’ not ‘guide on the side’ in which learning becomes more of collaborative affairs between the teachers and the students.

Therefore, this study investigated the Impact of Self Directed Learning Strategies on the Written English Performance of Selected Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

One hundred and fifty students were selected randomly from SS 11 students of Demonstration Secondary School ABU, Zaria and Government Day Secondary Schools, Bomo (Senior).

T-test was used for the test with the aim of identifying the differences between the performance of students exposed to SDL strategies and those that were not exposed. The investigation involved pre-test, then the treatment and post-test. Six research questions and six hypotheses were generated, tested and answered.

The overall study results revealed significant differences between the written English mean performance scores of the experimental and control groups before and after the treatment. The results also showed the performance was independent of location of the schools.


Title Page i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

List of Table xi

List of appendices xiii

Definition of operational Terms xiv

Abbreviations xv


1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 2

1.3 Purpose of the Study 4

1.4 Research questions 4

1.5 Hypotheses 5

1.6 Significance of the Study 6

1.7 Scope and Delimitation 7


2.1 Introduction 8

2.2 The Emergence of Self Directed Learning 8

2.3 Strategies for Organizing Self-directed Learning 9

2.4 Theories of Second Language Acquisition 12

2.4.1Vygotsky’s Theory Zone of Proximal Development 13

2.4.2 Chomky’s Input Theory 13

2.4.3 Krashen’s Input Hypothesis Model 14 Acquisitition Learning Hypothesis 14 Monitor Learning Hypothesis 14 Natural Order Hypothesis 14 Input Hypothesis 14 Affective Filter Hypothesis 15

2.4.5 Implications of the Language Theories for teaching 15

2.5 Content, Organization, Expression, Mechanics and Written English 16

2.6 Writing as a Language Skill 17

2.7 Written English and School Location 23

2.8 Previous Studies on Self Directed Learning 25

2.9 Gains from the Review of Literature 32

2.10Theoretical Framework 33


3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Research Design 35

3.4 Population 35

3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 36

3.6 Research Instrument 37

3.7 Validation of Research Instruments 38

3.8 Procedure for Data Collection 38

3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis 40


4.1 Introduction 41

4.2. Solutions to the Research Questions and Hypotheses 41

4.3 Overall Findings 64

4.5 Discussion 64

4.5 Summary 66


5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Summary 67

5.3 Conclusion 69

5.4 Recommendations 69

5.5 Contribution 70

5.6 Suggestion for Future Research 71


The role of English language as a medium of instruction and communication is enormous. In Nigeria, English language is not only used as a medium of instruction but as a language of administration, law, commerce and religious activities and it is also an official language.

More than that, however, English language still remains the gate way to higher education for many years to come (Ikara, 1982). The written English is one important aspect of language and communication skills and it is the most complex of the four language skills.

Consequently, students have been encountering series of problems with writing. Despite the fact that they are motivated to learn writing, they write with much difficulty and, as a result, the achievement is critically low (Brent, 2001).

One reason for this study is the woeful failure of secondary school students in West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE).

A study of students’ writing ability from the perspectives of self directed learning strategies could help find effective ways of enhancing language proficiency in the area of teaching and learning.

Actually, the low performance in written English of students of senior secondary schools is attributable to ESL teachers’ improper habit of clinging to traditional methods of language teaching.

Traditional teacher-centred approaches are largely blamed for the low English achievement (Williams, 1993). This is why the present study explored the impact of self directed learning strategies on the written English performance of students of senior secondary schools to see whether better achievement could be achieved.


Aboderin, Y. (1987). “Problems of Culture Transfer in the use of English as a Second Language: examples letter writing”.
Adams, M.J. (1190). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge MA:MIT Press
Allwright, R.L.; Woodley, M.P.& Allwright, J.M.(1988). Investigating reformulation as a practical strategy for the teaching of academic writing. Applied Linguistic. 9,236-256.
Aouladomar, F. & Saint-Dizier, P. (2006). “Towards generating procedural texts: an exploration of their rhetorical and argumentative structure”Retrieved: January 9, 2013 from
Appelebee, A.N. (1993). Literature in the secondary school: Studies of curriculum and instruction in the United State.
Association of American Colleges and Universities,(2005). Liberal Education Outcomes. A Preliminary Report on Students Achievements in College. Washington, D.C.

CSN Team.

Comments are closed.

Hey Hi

Don't miss this opportunity

Enter Your Details