Impact of Process Approach on Questioning Preference, Academic Achievement and Retention Span Among Chemistry Students in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria

Filed in Articles by on July 17, 2022

Impact of Process Approach on Questioning Preference, Academic Achievement and Retention Span Among Chemistry Students in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria.


This study investigated the Impacts of Process Approach onQuestioning Preference, Academic Achievementand Retention Span among Chemistry students in Senior Secondary School (SS2). A sample of 78 students selected from two secondary schools inZaria Metropolis were used as the study sample from a population of 1,241 students from 10 schools.

The two schools randomly selected, were found after matching them, to be equivalent academically. One of the schools served as control group and the other serve as the experimental group which was exposed to science process teaching approach while the control group was exposed to lecture based instruction.

Topics taught are state of matter, change of state, and kinetic theory of matter, Gas laws, Acid-Base reactions and chemical reaction. The choice of these concepts is considered suitable because they are some of the difficult areas student failed in exams.

A researcher- developed Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) with a reliability coefficient of 0.73, was used to collect data for pretest, posttest and post-posttest (Extended test) used to test the four null hypothesis. The data collected were analyzed using t-test statistic, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe‘s test at a significance level of P≤0.05.

Results indicated that (i) the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group in their academic achievement after undergoing the experimental treatment of science process teaching approach.

The level of retention was significantly high for students taught using Science Process Teaching Approach when compared with those taught using Lecture Method


Title Page          i

Declaration               ii

Certification            iii

Dedication               iv

Acknowledgements             v

List of Abbreviations.               vi

Definition of Terms.   vii

List of Tables             viii

List of Figures                     -x

List of Appendices                     xi

Table of Contents                       xii

Abstract                       -xv


  • Introduction 1
  • Statement of the Problem 9
  • Objectives of the Study 11
  • Research Questions 12
  • Null Hypotheses 12
  • Significance of the Study 13
  • Scope of the Study 14
  • Basic Assumptions 14


  • Introduction 15
  • Nature and Teaching of Chemistry in Senior Secondary School—- 15
  • Methods of Teaching Chemistry 18
    • erstanding Chemistry 20
  • Science Process Teaching Approach 24
    • Lecture Teaching Method 30
  • Psychological Basis for Teaching Science by Process Approach-30
  • Concept of Cognitive Taxonomy 34
  • gnitive Skills 46
  • Questioning and Using Cognitive Structures– 54
  • Cognitive Questioning Preference 56 2.1 Instructional Strategy and Retention Ability 60
  • Instructional Strategy and Academic Achievements in Chemistry———————— 62
  • Retention Span and Academic Achievement——— 68
  • Overview of Similar Studies 70
  • Implications of the Literature Reviewed on the Present Study— 81


  • Introduction 83
  • Research Design 83
  • Population of the Study 85
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques 86
  • Instrumentation 88
  • Validity of the Instrument (CAT) 90
  • Reliability of the Instrument (CAT) 90
  • Pilot Testing 91
  • Administration of Treatment 93
  • Data Collection Procedure -96
  • Data Analysis 97


  • Introduction 100
  • Data Analysis and Results 100
  • Summary of Findings 110
  • Discussion of Results 110


  • Introduction 116
  • Summary 116
  • Summary of Major Findings 118 4Conclusion 118
  • Contributions to Knowledge 119
  • Recommendations ——- 121
  • Limitations of the Study– 122

5.8 Suggestions for Further Study——- 122

References            124

Appendices           134


Chemistry as one of the physical sciences deals with the nature of matter; its properties and its changes in different conditions. Chemistry according to Zohar (2004) should be studied to improve man‘s knowledge and enhance his understanding of his environment for his survival.

The subject as shown by Ezeliora (2010) is at the core of every technology that is enjoyed today. According to Ezeliora, (2010) the power of chemical science creates as a whole an enabling infrastructure that delivers food, medicine and materials which are the hallmarks of modern life.

Today its significance as a core subject in the study of medicine, several technologically based courses, pharmacy and engineering is indisputably important as stipulated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2008).

Therefore, Chemistry education has a fundamental role to play in providing solution to several technological and socio-economic issues confronting man as well as improve scientific literacy (Neshitt-Hawes, 2005 & Ezeliora 2010).

Chemistry has also been perceived by students at the various level of the educational sector particularly in secondary school as very difficult to understand (Ezeliora 2003).

Majority of the students perceived Chemistry as a body of isolated facts to be memorized, lacking relevance to reality which has led to lack of interest in it by students (Ezeliora 2003).


Abdulhamid, Z (2008). Promoting Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Teaching Chemistry; A Foundation for Developing Entrepreneurial Skills.A Handbook for Chemistry Teachers by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria(169-172)2008.
Abu-Rabia, S., (2003), The Influence of Working Memory on Reading and Creative Writing Processes in a Second Language, Educational Psychology.
Adeniyi, E.O. (1997). An Analysis of the Relationship among Intended Curriculum inuse Curriculum and Student Cognitive Structure Associated with an Ecology Unit. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Aikenhead, G. (2005): Consequences of Learning Science. A Research Perspective. Engineering Education Journal.(13) 39-50.
Ajewole, G.A. and Okebukola P.A.O (1988).The Instructional Method on Retention of Biological Concepts. Nigeria Educational Forum, 11 (1) 77 – 80.

CSN Team.

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