Aestivation Induction and Evidence of Conformational Differences : Current School News

Ads! Gain 200 Level Admission to Study Any Course In Any University Of Your Choice Through IJMB/JUPEB. NO JAMB | LOW FEES. Registration In Progress. Call 08033006849 NOW!

Aestivation Induction and Evidence of Conformational Differences Between Oxy-haemocyanin And Deoxyhaemocyaninin Aestivating and Non-aestivating Snails

ADS! Download JAMB CBT Software Now for FREE!

Aestivation Induction and Evidence of Conformational Differences Between Oxy-haemocyanin And Deoxyhaemocyaninin Aestivating and Non-aestivating Snails.

ABSTRACT  

Haemocyanin is a high molecular weight, dioxygen, transport, copper-glycoprotein with a dicopper active site found in the haemolymph of several marines and terrestrial invertebrates belonging to the phyla Mollusca and Arthropoda

Haemocyanin exists in two distinct conformers: The T-conformer (Tense) and the R-conformer (Relaxed). Knowledge of the molecular architecture around the copper atoms in the active site of haemocyanin is important in understanding how these proteins reversibly bind oxygen.

Induction of aestivation and the evidence of conformational differences between oxy-haemocyanin and deoxy-haemocyanin in aestivating and non-aestivating snails were studied.

Aestivation induction was studied by treating five groups of snails (groups A, B, C, D and E) with respective volumes of oxy-haemocyanin from aestivating snails, respective volumes of oxy-haemocyanin from non-aestivating snails and respective volumes of distilled water.

Evidence of conformational differences between oxyhaemocyanin and deoxy-haemocyanin was also studied by treating the haemolymph of two snail samples (Snail 1 and Snail 2) with nitrogen gas.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page …..…………………………………………………………………….. i
Approval page …………………………………………………………………….. ii
Dedication ….……………………………………………………………………… iii
Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………. iv
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………….. v
Table of contents…………………………………………………………………. vi
List of figures…………………………………………………………………….. x
List of tables ………………………………………………………………………. xiii

CHAPTER ONE:
1.1 General introduction ..………………………………………………………….1
1.1.1Achatinaglutinosa(A. glutinosa) ………………………………….……….. 4
1.1.2Taxonomy of A. glutinosa………………………………………………….. 4
1.2 Metabolic depression in snails…………………………………………………. 6
1.2.1 Dormancy……………………………………………………………………. 7
1.2.1.1Aestivation ………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2.1.2 Hibernation ……………………………………………………………….. 8
1.2.1.3Diapause …………………………………………………………………..9
1.2.1.4Topor ……………………………………………………………………… 9
1.2.1.5 Dauer…………………………………………………………………….. 10
1.2.2Cryptobiosis………………………………………………………………… 10
1.2.2.1 Anhydrobiosis…………………………………………………………… 11
1.2.2.2Cryobiosis…………………………………………………………….….. 11
1.2.2.3Anoxybiosis /Anaerobiosis……………………………………………… 12
1.2.2.4Osmobiosis……………………………………………………………… 13
1.3 Aestivation in pulmonatesnails (A.glutinosa) ………………………………. 13
1.3.1 Entry into aestivation ….……………………………………………………. 15
1.3.2 Physiological changes in snails during aestivation ………..………………. 15
1.3.2.1Body temperature and water loss during aestivation ……………………… 15
1.3.2.2 Respiration during aestivation …………………………………………… 16
1.3.2.3 Metabolic rate during aestivation ……………………………………….. 16
1.3.3 Arousal from Aestivation ………………………………………………….. 18
1.4Regulation and gene expression during aestivation…………………………. 19
1.4.1 Metabolic control by reversible phosphorylation in aestivation …………… 19
1.4.1.1Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase…………………………………….. 21
1.4.1.2 Ion motiveATPasesduring aestivation …………………………………… 22
1.4.1.3 Protein synthesis during aestivation ……………… …………………….. 22
1.4.1.4 Protein degradation during aestivation …………………………………………. 23
1.5Dioxygen transport proteins during aestivation ……………………………… 24
1.6Haemocyanins ………………………………………………………………… 26
1.6.1 Active site structure and oxygenation of haemocyanins …………………… 27
1.6.2 Molluscan and arthropodanhaemocyanins ………………………………… 28
1.6.3 Haemocyanin as a respiratory pigment……………………………………. 36
1.6.4 Haemocyanin as a phenoloxidase…………………………………………. 38
1.6.5 Medical, industrial and agricultural importance of haemocyanins………… 40
1.7 Rationale of study…………………………………………………………….. 41
1.8 Aim and objectives of research.……………………………….……………… 41

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Materials ………………………………………………………………………. 43
2.1.1 Reagents / Chemicals……………………………………………………….. 43
2.1.2 Equipment / Instrument……………………………………………………… 43
2.1.3 Animal Procurement …………………………………………………………. 43
2.2 Methods……………………………………………………………………….. 43
2.2.1 Feeding of snails…………………………………………………………….. 43
2.2.2 Induction of aestivation in snails……………………………………………43
2.2.3 Collection of haemolymph……………………………………………………44
2.2.4 Injection of aestivating snail haemolymph into snails.……………………… 44
2.2.5 Injection of non-aestivating snail haemolymph into snails …………………. 45
2.2.6 Injection of distilled water into snails……………………………………………… 45
2.2.7Deoxygenation of snail haemolymph……………………………………… 46
2.2.8 UV- Visible scanning of haemocyanin………………………………………….. 46
2.2.8.1 UV- Visible scanning of oxy-haemocyanin………………………………. 47
2.2.8.1.1 UV- Visible scanning of oxy-haemocyanin containing different
volumes of aestivating haemocyanin…………………………………. 47
2.2.8.1.2 UV- Visible scanning of oxy-haemocyanin containing different
volumes of non- aestivating haemocyanin………………………….….. 47
2.2.8.2 UV- Visible scanning of haemocyanin contained in haemolymph injected
with different volumes of water………………………………………… 47
2.2.8.3 UV- Visible scanning of deoxy-haemocyanin…………………………… 47

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1 Induction of aestivation ………………………………………………………… 48
3.1.1 Induction of aestivation in snails injected with aestivating haemolymph…… 48
3.1.2 Induction of aestivation in snails injected with non- aestivating haemolymph. 48
3.1.3 Induction of aestivation in snails injected with distilled water…………..……48
3.2 UV Spectroscopy…………………………………………………………….. 52
3.2.1.UV- Visible spectra of oxy-haemocyanin in haemolymph extracted
from snails injected with different volumes of non-aestivating
haemolymph……………………………………………………………… 52
3.2.2 UV- Visible spectra of oxy-haemocyanin in haemolymph extracted
from snails Injected with different volumes of non-aestivating
haemolymph………………………………………………………….…. 57
3.2.3UV spectra of haemocyanin in haemolymph extracted from snails injected
with different volumes of distilled water…………………………………… 62
3.2.4UV- Visible Spectra of Deoxy-Haemocyanin and the Corresponding
Oxyhaemocyanin from Snail I and II……………………………………… 68

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
4.1 Discussion …………………………………………………………………….. 71
4.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………… 74
Recommendations for further studies……………………………………………. 75

References…………………………………………………………………………. 76

INTRODUCTION  

Mollusca is the second largest phylum of the animal kingdom, forming a major part of the world fauna. The Gastropoda is the only class of molluscs that have successfully invaded the land.

They are one of the most diverse groups of animals, both in shape and habit. Among gastropods, land snails (subclass: Pulmonata) are one of the most numerous with almost 35,000 described species of the world.   The Phylum Mollusca is probably the third most important animal group after the arthropods and vertebrates (South, 1992). Snails and slugs belong to the class Gastropoda.

They are molluscs, a group of invertebrates with soft unsegmented bodies. Slugs are often described as snails without a shell, while snail bodies are enclosed in calcareous shells (Barker, 2001; Ramzy, 2009).  

The terrestrial Mollusca including snails and slugs are destructive agricultural pests causing economic damage to a wide variety of plants including horticulture, field crops, and forestry.

In addition, they are of importance in medical and veterinary practice. Gastropods such as slugs and snails secrete a trail of mucus from their pedal gland while ravelling across a surface (Denny, 1983).  

REFERENCES

Aarset, A. V. (1982). Freezing tolerance in intertidal invertebrates. Comparative Biochemistry
and Physiology,73: 571-580.
Abd El-Wakeil, K. F. (2005): Ecotoxicolgical studies on terrestrial isopods (Crustacea) in Assiut,
Egypt, Ph. D. Thesis. Assiut University, Egypt, p. 271.
Agarwala, B. V. and Munshi, K. N. (1993). Facets of Coordination Chemistry. Science. World
Scientific Publishing Company Incoporated, Exeter, p. 206.
Agbogidi, O. M. and Okonta, B. C. (2011). Reducing poverty through snail farming in
Nigeria.Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 2(1): 169-172.
Akande, I. S., Odetola, A. A., Samuel, T. A. and Okolie, P. N. (2010). Biochemical evaluation of
aestivation and starvation in two snail species. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(45):
7718-7723.
Ali, B. A., Zaidi, Z. H. and Abbasi, A. (1995). Oxygen transport proteins, I. Structure and
organization of haemocyanin from scorpion (Buthus sindicus). Comparative Biochemistry
and Physiology, 112(1): 225-232.

Enter your email address:

Delivered by TMLT NIGERIA

Join Over 5 Million Subscribers Today!


=> FOLLOW US ON INSTAGRAM | FACEBOOK & TWITTER FOR LATEST UPDATES

ADS: KNOCK-OFF DIABETES IN JUST 60 DAYS! - ORDER YOURS HERE

COPYRIGHT WARNING! Contents on this website may not be republished, reproduced, redistributed either in whole or in part without due permission or acknowledgement. All contents are protected by DMCA.
The content on this site is posted with good intentions. If you own this content & believe your copyright was violated or infringed, make sure you contact us at [[email protected]] to file a complaint and actions will be taken immediately.

Tags: , , , , ,

Comments are closed.

%d bloggers like this: