Assessment  of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Level in  Metropolis Monitoring : Current School News

Assessment  of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Level in  Metropolis Monitoring Industrial and Residential Area

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ABSTRACT

Air pollutions pollutant showed that the extent of spreading depends on the motor vehicle traffic population of the area. This pollution strongly generated through combustion of fossil fuels presents difficult environmental challenge to societies as it could degrade the environment and affect human health and quality of life.

Vehicular emissions are major contributors to air pollution in urban areas as they contain harmful gases. The levels of carbon monoxide has been investigated in two locations of Enugu metropolis  (high traffic  ‟old park‟ and low traffic  „caritas university‟), in order to determine its pollution status with regards to air. EL-USB-

CO analyzer used for the analysis indicated variations in the levels of CO for the period of study. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of CO in high traffic (HT) area is higher than that of low traffic  (LT) and is unacceptable compared with the Federal Environmental Protection agency (FEPA) Nigeria set limit.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgement            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Table of content     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1 Statement of problem –        –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.2 Aim         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.2Objectives          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.3 Research Hypothesis  –          –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.4 Scope of Study            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.5 Significance of Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

2.1 Measurement and Monitoring of Co        –           –           –           –           –           13

2.2 Sources of Carbon monoxide –       –           –           –           –           –

2.3 Properties of Carbon monoxide –   –           –           –           –           –           20

2.4 Production of Carbon monoxide-  –           –           –           –           –           –           22

2.5 Importance of Carbon monoxide- –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.6 Effects of Carbon monoxide in human health – –           –           –           –           25

2.7 Epidemiological effects of Carbon monoxide     –           –           –           –           26

2.8 Impacts of Carbon monoxide          –           –           –           –           –           29

2.9 Local Studies – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           31

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 materials and Methods         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result and Discussion –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

4.1 List of Tables –  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

4.2 Test of Hypothesis      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

4.3 List of Graphs  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Conclusion and recommendation –           –           –           –           –           –           56

Bibliography            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

Appendix      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

INTRODUCTION

Air pollution is associated with increasing cases of many adverse health effects, e.g. mortality, respiratory diseases and cancer. The chemical composition of ambient air is very complex and depends on many  different factors, traffic generated air pollution being a major source in large cities.

This is especially true in  the  developing  world,  mainly  due  to  the  high  proportion  of  old,  poorly maintained vehicles, the abundance of two stroke vehicles and the poor fuel quality (Baumbach et al., 1995; Gwilliam 2003). All these factors contribute to one of the major air pollutant in urban areas; carbon monoxide (CO).

CO is a poisonous, colorless, inevitable gas that has neither taste nor smell. It is formed when carbon burns with too little air (incomplete combustion) (Smith and Scott, 2002). Carbon monoxide (CO), also called Carbonious oxide or Carbon (II) Oxide and is slightly lighter than air.

CO is a deadly, colorless, odorless, poisonous gas, produced by the incomplete burning of various fuels, including coal, wood, charcoal, oil, kerosene, propane, and natural gas. Products and equipment and machines powered by internal combustion engines such as portable generators, cars, lawn mowers, and power washers also produce CO.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ayres, R. U. and Ayres, E. H. (2009). Crossing the Energy Divide: Moving from Fossil Fuel Dependence to a Clean-Energy Future. Wharton School Publishing. Pg 36. ISBN 0137015445

Baumbach G., Vogt U., Hein KR G., Oluwole A.F, Ogunsola OJ, Olaniyi HB, et al. (1995). Air Pollution in a Large Tropical City with a High Traffic Density Results of Measurements in Lagos, Nigeria. Sci Total Environ;
Vol.169: 25- 31.

Blackburn, S. T. (2007). Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology: a Clinical Perspective. Elsevier Health Sciences. P. 325.

Blanco, F.; Alkorta, I.; Solimannejad, M. and Elguero, J. (2009). Theoretical Study of the 1:1 Complexes between Carbon Monoxide and Hypohalous Acids. J. Phys. Chem. A 113 (13): 3237-3244.

Elschenbroich, C. and Salzer, A. ”Organometallics : A Concise Introduction” (2nd Ed) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2006.

Ernst A, Zibrak JD. (1998). Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. N Engl J Med. 339:1603.

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