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Demographic Determinants of Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers in Benue State

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Demographic Determinants of Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers in Benue State.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine demographic determinants of exclusive and nonexclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers in Benue State, Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, 10 hospitals were randomly selected using multi-stage sampling technique (simple random, stratified, and purposive sampling techniques). The data was collected using close ended questionnaire. 500 questionnaires were distributed to nursing mothers who visited antenatal clinics in the randomly selected hospitals, from which 455 were duly completed and returned.

Frequencies of percentages and cross tabulation statistics were used to answer research questions. Associations between demographic determinants and breastfeeding practices were analyzed using Chi-square statistics at alpha level of 0.05 to test the formulated hypotheses. The findings of the study, indicated high (99.8%) prevalence of breastfeeding among nursing mothers, out of which 83.5% exclusively breastfed for up to 4-6 months.Only 16.5% however supplemented breastfeeding.

The findings of the study revealed that; mother’s age significantly influenced the practice of exclusive and nonexclusive breastfeeding of babies, indicating high exclusive breastfeeding among mothers of 25years and above, and low exclusive breastfeeding among younger mothers of 19 years and below.The results further showed that, mother’s level of education significantly influenced the practice of exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding of babies, indicating high exclusive breastfeeding practice among literate mothers with at least secondary education.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page
Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………….i
Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………….ii
Certification …………………………………………………………………………..………iii
Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………….……iv
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………….……v
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………..….viii
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………….…….ix
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………….……xiii
List of Appendices……………………………………………………………………….…xiv
Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………………….xv
Operational Definition of Terms…………………………………………………….………xvi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1 Background of the Study…………………………………………….…………………….1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………..…………………..3
1.3 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………..……5
1.4 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………….…….……………..6
1.5 Significance of the Study……………………………………………….….………………6
1.6 Hypotheses …………………………………………………………………………..……7
1.7 Basic Assumptions…………………………………………………………..…………….8
1.8 Delimitation of the Study………………………………………………………….……….8
1.9 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………………..8

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction………………………………………………….……………………………10
2.2 Concept of Breast and Production of Breast Milk……………………………….………11
2.3 Exclusive Breastfeeding……………………………….………………………………….13
2.3.1 Benefits of Exclusive Breastfeeding …………………………………………….…….17
2.4 Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding……………………………………………………………..23
2.4.1 Benefits of Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding…………………………………..…………..26
2.4.2 Challenges of Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding…………………………………………….27
2.5 Demographic Determinants of Exclusive and Non- Exclusive Breastfeeding……..…….28
2.5.1 Breastfeeding and Mother‟s Age………………………….……………………………28
2.5.2 Breastfeeding and Mother‟s Level of Education………………………..……………..33
2.5.3 Breastfeeding and Mother‟s Occupation……………………..…………………………37
2.5.4 Breastfeeding and Mother‟s Level of Income…………………………………..………42
2.5.5 Breastfeeding and the Culture of Nursing Mothers.………………………………………44
2.6 Stages of Breast Milk……………..………………..……………………………………..49
2.7 Importance of Breast Milk in the Growth and Development of Infants………………….50
2.8 Basic Nutritional Needs of Infants……………………………………..…………………54
2.9 Summary…………………………..……………………………………………………..60

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………61
3.1 Research Design…………………………..………………………………………………61
3.2 Population…………………………………………………………………………………61
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques……………………………………..………………….61
3.4 Research Instrument…………………………………………………….………………..63
3.5 Validation……………………………………………….………………………………..64
3.6 Administration of Instrument………………………………………………….…………64
3.7 Statistical Techniques………………………………………………..……………………64

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction……………………………………….……………………………………..66
4.1 Results…………………………………………….………………………………………67
4.2 Discussion…………………………………………….………………………………….86
4.2.1 Influence of Mother‟s Age and the Practice of Exclusive and Non-Exclusive
Breastfeeding……………………………………………………………………………86
4.2.2 Influence of Mother‟s Level of Education and the Practice of Exclusive and Non-
Exclusive Breastfeeding……………………………………………….………………88
4.2.3 Influence of Mother‟s Occupation and the Practice of Exclusive and Non- Exclusive
Breastfeeding………………..………………………………………………………….89
4.2.4 Influence of Mother‟s Level of Income and the Practice of Exclusive and Non-
Exclusive Breastfeeding………………………………………………………………..91
4.2.5 Influence of Family Views Regarding the Practice of Exclusive and Non-Exclusive
Breastfeeding…………………………………..……………………………………..92

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………94
5.2 Conclusion…………………………..…………………………………………………..95
5.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………….95
5.4 Recommendations for Future Research………………………………………………….96
References……………………………………..……………………………………………97

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study Infant feeding methods are a major determinant of infant nutritional status, which in turn, affects infant morbidity and mortality. Among feeding methods, breastfeeding is of particular importance because this practice is fundamental for growth, development, health and survival of infants. Diallo, Bell, Moutquine, & Garrant (2005) stated that about 5.6 million infants die annually because they do not receive adequate nutrition.

Breastfeeding therefore has been classified by scientists and health workers as the best natural food for babies and breast milk contains all the necessary nutrients for the healthy growth of the child. The benefits of breastfeeding are numerous ranging from providing the infant with antibodies, to helping ward off risks of illnesses and providing the baby with all his/her nutritional needs (Mundi, 2008).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2004), breast milk provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first six months of life, and it provides about half or more of a child‟s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, up to one third during the second year of life.

REFERENCES

Adamu,E.E. (2002). Assessment of the Health Status of Exclusively Breastfed and Partially
Breastfed Infants (0-6 Months) in Kaduna State. Unpublished Doctorate Dissertation,Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Nigeria.

Agho, K. E. Dibley, M.J. Odiase, J.I. and Ogbonmwan, S.M. (2011). Determinants of
Exclusive Breastfeeding in Nigeria. Journal of Biomedical Central, 11(2):147-149.

Akre, J. (1990c). Health Factors that may Interfere with Breastfeeding: In Bulleting of the
World Health Organizations (1989). Infant Feeding: The Physiological Basis. 67 (45):
63-65.

Al-Frayh, M. (1989). Current Trends in Infant Feeding in Saudi Society. Journal of Obstetric
and Gynecology; 10(1):521-522

Almorth, S. and Latham, M.C. (1982). Breastfeeding Practices in Rural Jamaica. Journal of
Tropical Pediatrics, 28(3):103-109.

Al-Shosan, A.A. (2005). Factors Affecting Mothers and Decisions Related to Breastfeeding
Practices and Weaning Habits. Journal of Nutrition; 6(1):318-322

Amador, M. Silva, L.C. And Valdes-Lazo F. (1994). Breastfeeding Practices in Cuba: A
Comparison. Journal of Cajanus; 27(3):145-155.

American Academy of Pediatrics And American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
(AAP & ACOG), (2007). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (6th Ed). Washington, Elk
Grove Village, IL. 205-210

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