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Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Liquified Petroleum Gas Incubator

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Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Liquified Petroleum Gas Incubator.

ABSTRACT

Studies showed that the use of an automated incubator powered from the mains electricity, a solar powered incubator or the kerosene type incubator for the production of day-old chicks is either very expensive to manage or ineffective in operation.

Hence, this research work is aimed at designing, fabrication and testing of an automated incubator powered by energy generated from burning of Liquified Petroleum Gas with the use of a micro-controller device.

A micro-controller device was developed in order to achieve a timed automated sparking mechanism for a Liquified Petroleum Gas burner and egg crates turner. The micro-controller, which has a screen display of temperature and humidity readouts, has the sole responsibility of maintaining a steady temperature and humidity inside the incubator chamber.

A 3D model of the designed incubator was produced using Solidworks software package. Performance evaluation carried out on the incubator revealed that seventy-nine (79) eggs hatched successfully out of one hundred and twenty (120) eggs set for hatching.

This represents about 65% of the eggs set. Also fifteen kilogram (15 kg) of LPG was consumed during the incubation process. This cost about four thousand and eighty naira (N4,080:00). Since only seventy-nine (79) eggs hatched successfully after incubation, this translates to an incubating cost of fifty one naira sixty five kobo (N51:65k) per chick.

Finally, the incubator was able to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity of 37.5 0C and 45% respectively during performance evaluation test.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page……

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i

Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii

Certification……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vi

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii

List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… x

List of Plates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi

List of Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xii

Abbreviations and Nomenclature……………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii

Chapter One…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

  • Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
  • Background of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
  • Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
  • Present Work………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
  • Aim and Objectives of the Work……………………………………………………………………………………. 6
  • Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
  • Justification for the Work…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
  • Scope of Study……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Chapter Two……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

  • Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
  • Incubators………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
  • Classification of Incubators………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
    • Natural incubation………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
    • Artificial incubation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
  • Incubating Conditions………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
  • Design Theories………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
    • Theory of heat exchange…………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
    • Optimum incubation temperature……………………………………………………………………………… 19
  • Past Research work on Incubator Fabrication………………………………………………………………….. 20

Chapter Three………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

  • Materials and Methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
  • Description of the Cabinet Incubator……………………………………………………………………………. 22
  • Research Materials, Tools and Equipment……………………………………………………………………… 27
  • Control Design………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • Design Considerations………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • Design Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
    • Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
    • Egg rotation illustration……………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
  • Design Calculation…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
    • Calculation for crate number……………………………………………………………………………………. 35
    • Calculation for shear stress and bending moments……………………………………………………….. 35
    • Calculation for heat requirement………………………………………………………………………………. 37
  • Fabrication of the Incubator………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • Cost Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Experimental Procedure……………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

Chapter Four………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50

  • Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Discussion of Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

Chapter Five………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64

  • Conclusion and Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • Contribution to Knowledge…………………………………………………………………………………………. 65

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

Poultry production forms an important component of Nigeria’s livestock sub-sector. As a provider of employment and income, poultry production constitutes an important form of livelihood for rural and urban dwellers.

Poultry farmers who are well spread all over the different geographical zones of the country engaged in the production of meat, eggs, day-old chicks, poultry manure, etc. for rural, urban and sub-urban populations.

An egg incubator is equipment which provides opportunity for farmers to produce chicks from eggs without the consent of the mother hen. There are majorly two types of incubation viz; natural and artificial incubation.

The most important difference between natural and artificial incubation is the fact that in natural incubation mother hen provides warmth by contact rather than surrounding the egg with warm air as it is in artificial incubation.

An Egg incubator is an enclosure which has controlled temperature, humidity, and ventilation for hatching of poultry eggs such as chicken eggs, turkey eggs, quail eggs, guinea fowl eggs, etc. (University of Illinois, 2014)

Study of the chicken egg and its development from the un-incubated stage to the emergence of the chick from the shell has been interesting. The developing chick in an egg is called an embryo, and a careful study of the different stages of embryonic development uncovered many interesting facts.

Incubation of eggs shows the effects of heat, air, and moisture on hatchability. It shows how an egg is formed, their different parts and their functions, and how a chick embryo develops. (University of Illinois, 2014)

REFERENCES

About-Education. (2015). About Chemistry. Retrieved from About.com: http://chemistry.about.com

Abraham, N. T., Mathew, S. L., and Kumar , C. A. (2014, February). Design and Implementation of Solar PV Poultry Incubator. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 3(3), 289-291.

Agidi, G., Liberty, J. T., Gunre, O. N., and Owa , G. J. (2014). Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of an Electric Powered Egg Incubator. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 521-526.

Ahmadu, T. O., Folayan, C. O., and Yawas, D. S. (2009). Comparative Performance of Cow dung and Chicken droppings for Bio-gas production. Nigerian Journal of Engineering vol. 16, (1) 154- 164.

AUS-e-TUTE. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.ausetute.com.au on 16th September, 2015 Austic, R.E., and Nesheim M.C, (1990). Commercial Chicken Production. Poultry production (13th edition).

Benjamin, N. (2012). IJAIEM, 1(4), 26-31. Retrieved from www.ijaiem.org da Silva, C. A., and Mhlanga , N. (2011). Innovative policies and institutions to support agro- industries development. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Engineeringtoolbox. (2015). Specific Heat of Dry Air. Retrieved from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com on 16th September, 2015

Engineersedge. (n.d.). Thermal Properties of Metals, Conductivity, Thermal Expansion, Specific Heat. Retrieved from https://www.engineersedge.com/ on 16th September, 2015

 

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