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Development of Glass Ceramics Using Kaolin Processing Waste, Sodalime and Borosilicate Glass Wastes

Filed in Current Projects, Industrial Design by on August 5, 2020
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Development of Glass Ceramics Using Kaolin Processing Waste, Sodalime and Borosilicate Glass Wastes.

ABSTRACT

The utilisation of waste materials to producea useful product is highly encouraged to avoid its disposal on land fields so as to safeguard the environment. Kaolin waste, soda lime and borosilicate glass wastes were used to develop glass ceramic. The oxides content of the raw materials were determined using the X-Ray Florescence machine while the moisture content and loss on ignition were determined by the weight loss method and the following results were obtained; SiO₂ 80.50% for borosilicate 77.63% in soda lime and 46.80% in kaolin, Fe₂O₃ content in borosilicate was O.22%, 0.30%in soda lime and 0.01% in kaolin .

V₂O5 was found in kaolin and soda lime glass wastes and B₂O₃ only in borosilicate glasswaste.CaO content of 7.46% in soda lime with value less than 1.0% in kaolin and borosilicate. Loss on ignition of 10.13% was found in kaolin, 0.30% in soda lime and 1.34% in borosilicateAl₂O₃ content of kaolin is 31.41%, 0.60% in soda lime and 0.52% in borosilicate, the MgO content of 0.20% in kaolin, 2.63% soda lime and 0.03% in borosilicate waste glass.

Particle sizes of 90 µm, 125 µm and 250 µm of the waste glasses were used to formulate batches, which were compressed into pellet shape of 20mm in diameter with a thickness of 5mm.Hydraulic pressing machine at a pressure of 10metric tones using the polyvinyl chlorine (PVC) organic binder was used to produce pellets. Then sintered at 750c°, 850°c and 950°c in a furnace at a heating rate of 50C /min with residence time of one hour and cooled gradually.

The composition containing kaolin, soda lime, borosilicate with 90µm particle size sintered at 950°Cgave the highest shrinkage in diameter with value of 17.36% and a batch containing kaolin, borosilicate and Na₂SO₄ with 250 µm particle size sintered at 750°C gave average of 0.94% in diameter. The physical properties of porosity, water absorption and bulk density were measured at all sintered temperatures for all the batches. The highest bulk density was found to be 2.54g /cm3 in the batch K₅B₅SL₉ₒ with 90 µm particle size at 850°C sintering temperature.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page………………………………………………………………………i
Title page………………………………………………………………………..ii
Declaration……………………………………………………………………..iii
Certification……………………………………………………………….……iv
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………v
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………vi
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..vii
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………viii
List of Figures……………………………………….. …….. ……………………xiv
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………xvi
List of Plates…………………………………………………………………….xvii
List of Appendices………………………………………………………………xviii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background…………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Statement of Problem……………………………………………………….3
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study……………………………………………4
1.4 Justification…………………………………………………………………4
1.5 Significance…………………………………………………………………5
16 Scope and Delimitation of the Study………………………………………. 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Glass Ceramics………………………………………………………………7
2.2 Waste Generation……………………………………………………………8
2.3 Waste Recycling ………………………………………………………. 9
2.4 Glass Recycling……………………………………………………………. 10
2.5 Borosilicate Glass………………………………………………………….. 11
2.6 Borosilicate Glass Waste…………………………………………………… 11
2.7 Soda lime Silica Glass……………………………………………………… 12
2.8 Soda lime Silica Waste Glass……………………………………………… 12
2.9. Kaolin……………………………………………………………………….13
2.10 Kaolin Deposit in Nigeria………………………………………………….. 13
2.11 Kaolin Processing Waste………………………………………………….. 14
2.12 Glass Ceramics Products……………………………………………………15
2.13 Nucleation and Crystallisation………………………………………………15
2.14 Glass Ceramic Process Route……………………………………………… 16
2.15 Devitrification………………………………………………………………20
2.16 Glass-Ceramics Composition Systems…………………………………….. 22
2.17 Glass Ceramic Production Methods…………………………………………23
2.17.1 Conventional Method……………………………………………………….23
2.17.2 Petrurgic Method…………………………………………………………… 24
2.17.3 Powder Sintering Method………………………………………………….. 24
2.17.4 Uniaxial Pressing Technique………………………………………………. 25
2.18 Particle Size………………………………………………………………… 25
2.19 Forming……………………………………………………………………. 26
2.20 Densification………………………………………………………………..26
2.21 Sintering…………………………………………………………………….27
2.21.1 Solid State Sintering……………………………………………………….. 27
2.21.2 Sintering Mechanism………………………………………………………. 27
2.23 Types of Glass Ceramics…………………………………………………… 30
2.23.1 Commercial Glass Ceramics………………………………………………..30
2.23.2 Machinable Glass Ceramics………………………………………………..31
2.23.3 Dental Glass Ceramics………………………………………………………31
2.23.4 Bioactive Glass Ceramics………………………………………………….. 32
2.23.5 Electrically Conducting and Insulating Glass Ceramic……………………. 32
2.23.6 Transparent Glass Ceramics……………………………………………….. 33
2.23.7 Glass – Ceramic Armor…………………………………………………….. 33
2.24 Properties of Glass ceramics………………………………………………. 34
2.24.1 Mechanical Properties………………………………………………………34
2.24.2 Density…………………………………………………………………….. 34
2.24.3 Thermal Properties………………………………………………………….35
2.24.4 Optical Properties………………………………………………………….. 35
2.24.5 Electrical Properties………………………………………………………..35
2.24.6 Dielectric Properties…………………………………………………………36
2.24.7 Chemical Properties…………………………………………………………38
2.25 Applications of Glass Ceramics…………………………………………….38
2.26 Production of Glass Ceramics from Wastes Materials…………………….. 39

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Raw Materials………………………………………………………………50
3.2 Sample Treatment and Laboratory Analysis………………………………. 50
3.2.1. Beneficiation………………………………………………………………..50
3.2.2 Sample Preparation………………………………………………………… 51
3.3 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis………………………………………………51
3.4 Determination of Moisture Content of Kaolin………………………………52
3.5 Batch Formulation…………………………………………………………. 52
3.6 Pellet Formation…………………………………………………………….55
3.7 Sintering…………………………………………………………………….55
3.8 Determination of Percentage Firing Shrinkage……………………………. 58
3.9 Measurement of Bulk Density, Apparent Density and Percentage Porosity. 58
3.10. Water Absorption……………………………………………………………60
3.11 Hardness Test…………………………………………………………….. 61
3.12 X-ray Diffraction Studies………………………………………………….. 62
3.13 Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies……………………………………. 62
3.14 Chemical Durability Test……………………………………………………62

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Sample Collection…………………………………………………………..65
4.2. Pulverised and Sieved Samples……………………………………………. 65
4.3. Moisture Content and Loss on Ignition……………………………………. 65
4.4 Oxides Analysis……………………………………………………………. 65
4.5 Pellets Formation…………………………………………………………… 67
4.6 Sintering……………………………………………………………………67
4.7. Shrinkage…………………………………………………………………… 70
4.8 Water absorption, Percentage Porosity, Bulk and Apparent Densities……..72
4.8.1 Water Absorption………………………………………………………….. 72
4.8.2 Porosity…………………………………………………………………….. 75
4.8.3 Bulk and Apparent Densities………………………………………………. 78
4.9 Hardness…………………………………………………………………….84
4.10 Chemical durability…………………………………………………………86
4.11 Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction…………………….. 86

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
5.1 Moisture Content and Loss on Ignition……………………………………. 101
5.2 Oxides Analysis……………………………………………………………. 101
5.3 Particle Size Effect………………………………………………………….102
5.3.1 Shrinkage…………………………………………………………………… 102
5.3.2. Water Absorption……………………………………………………………103
5.3.4 Porosity…………………………………………………………………….. 103
5.3.5 Bulk and Apparent Densities………………………………………………. 104
5.3.6 Hardness…………………………………………………………………….105
5.4 Composition Effect…………………………………………………………105
5.4.1 Shrinkage…………………………………………………………………… 105
5.4.2. Water Absorption……………………………………………………………106
5.4.3 Porosity…………………………………………………………………….. 107
5.4.4 Bulk and Apparent Densities………………………………………………. 107
5.4.5 Hardness ……………………………………………………………… 108
5.5 Sintering Temperature Effect……………………………………………….109
5.5.1 Shrinkage…………………………………………………………………… 109
5.5.2 Water Absorption……………………………………………………………109
5.5.3 Porosity…………………………………………………………………….. 110
5.5.4 Bulk and Apparent Densities………………………………………………. 110
5.5.5 Hardness ………………………………………………………………….111
5.6. Chemical durability…………………………………………………………111
5.7 Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction…………………….. 112

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1. Summary……………………………………………………………………117
6.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………. 117
6.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………………..118

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………….. 119 

INTRODUCTION  

Background Glass ceramics are fine grain polycrystalline ceramic materials obtained through the controlled Crystallisation of suitable glass compositions and different heat treatments (Callister, 2005). Considerable research work has been devoted to the recovery and safe, use of waste residuesfrom industries and domestic uses. The wastes from industry contain a high concentration of toxic substances, heavy metals, organic substances and soluble salts.

Waste processing resulting in reduction of the noxious and toxic substance occupies a central place for environmental preservation. Recycling methods and technologies with minimum quantity of energy and time are designed for the protection of the environment against pollution by toxic elements produced by industrial chemical waste (Sheppard, 1990).

The development of new glass ceramics is particularly relevant due to the possibilities of recycling large amounts of waste materials by incorporating them into the glass ceramics formulations. This trend is in line with one of the most important concerns of the present to ensure the quality of life of future generations by the minimization of the consumption of traditional raw – materials (Menezes et al., 2002 and Andreola et al., 2002).

The production of glass ceramic materials made by recycling industrial waste is an innovative development in the glass ceramic industry. Many researchers have paid much attention to the production of glass ceramic and sintered materials from industrial wastes to make them reasonably safe for the environment .The insertion of waste materials into the productive cycle might represent an alternative option which is interesting from both environmental and economic perspective (Sanchezet al., 2006). 

REFERENCES

Abbe, O.E; Grimes, S.M; Fowler, G.D and Baccaccini, A.R. (2009). Novel Sintered GlassCeramics from Vitrified Oil Well Drill Cuttings. Journal of material science. DOI..
10.1007/s 10853 – 009 – 3637-y.

Abdulsalam, S, Misau, I.and Abdulkarim, A. (2012). Potentials of Alkaleri Kaolinite Clayfor
the Production of Aluminun Sulphate. International journal of Engineering Research
and Applications Vol. 2. No. 4 Pp2008-2013. Univ., Vol. 59, No. 3.

Ahuwan, A.M. (1997). Determination of Physical and Chemical Properties of Clay Samples in
Bauchi Stated, Suspected to be Kaolin. Environ, Journal of Environmental studies Vol.
no. 1 A.B.U, Zaria.

Ali, E.A., Ahmed, A.S and Ahuwan, A.M. (2008). The Development of Glass Ceramics from
Local Raw Materials. Ashakwu Journal of ceramic vol. 5 Dasma Press, Zaria.

American Society Testing Material. (ASTM. C.373-88) (2006).Standard Test MethodForWater
Absorption, Bulk Density Apparent prorosity and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired
White Ware Products. ASTM International, West Conshohocken PA USA.

CSN Team.

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