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Effect of Gum Arabic on the Structure-property Relationship in Poly (vinyl Chloride)

Filed in Chemistry Project Topics, Current Projects by on October 26, 2020

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Effect of Gum Arabic on the Structure-property Relationship in Poly (vinyl Chloride).

ABSTRACT  

Gum Arabic exudate was collected from Acacia senegal trees around Zaria metropolis, purified in 95% ethanol and its physical and chemical modifications carried out. Physical modification of the gum involved plasticization of the gum with glycerol and ethylene glycol. The chemical method was performed by acid hydrolysis, acetolysis and acetate formation. Appearance of both modifications was observed after three days of drying.

Acetic anhydride (AAN), acetolysis (ACT) and ethylene glycol (EGL) modifications became hard and solid, and were ground to powder. Glycerol (GLY) turned very sticky and acid hydrolysis (AHY) turned into a viscous liquid. From characterization of the samples, all modifications were found to be less dense than the pure gum Arabic sample (PGM). AHY sample was found to be more turbid and has the highest conductivity value followed by AAN sample.

pH of all samples was found to be below 7.0, indicating acidic nature of the gums. Melting point measurements showed that all test samples have lower melting point values than the pure gum. FTIR and GC-MS spectra of the pure and chemically modified samples were studied. It was found that there were shifts and absorptions at different frequencies, indicating some degree of interaction between the gum and the modifying solvents.

The gums were all mixed with PVC at different compositions and cast into films using tetrahydrofuran as solvent. The films produced were subjected to mechanical tests. The AAN sample has the highest modulus at 10, 20, 30 and 40% gum composition. For PGM, the modulus drops from 10- 30% gum composition then finally increases. The ACT modification shows decrease in modulus as the percent of gum increases.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
CERTIFICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv
AKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xi
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xii
LIST OF PLATES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiii
LIST OF APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiv
ACRONYMS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xv

CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 STRUCTURE OF POLYSACCHARIDES ——————————————————————- 1
1.2 STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION OF POLYSACCHARIDES —————————————- 1
1.2.1 Starch Acetate ————————————————————————————————– 1
1.2.2 Hydroxylethyl ethers —————————————————————————————– 2
1.2.3 Acid hydrolysis ———————————————————————————————— 2
1.2.4 Acetolysis——————————————————————————————————– 3
1.3 PLASTICIZATION ————————————————————————————————- 3
1.4 BRIEF HISTORY OF PVC ————————————————————————————— 4
1.5 PREPARATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE——————————————————————– 5
1.6 INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURE OF PVC —————————————————————– 7
1.6.1 Suspension Polymerization Process———————————————————————– 7
1.6.2 Bulk Polymerization—————————————————————————————— 8
1.6.3 Emulsion Polymerization———————————————————————————— 9
1.6.4 Solution Polymerization ————————————————————————————- 9
1.7 MECHANISM OF FORMATION —————————————————————————- 10
1.7.1 Initiation ——————————————————————————————————- 10
1.7.2 Propagation ————————————————————————————————— 11
1.7.3 Termination————————————————————————————————— 11
1.8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC ————————————————————————- 12
1.9 COMPOUNDING OF PVC————————————————————————————- 13
1.10 ADDITIVES FOR PVC—————————————————————————————— 14
1.10.1 Plasticizers—————————————————————————————————- 14
1.10.2 Stabilizers —————————————————————————————————– 18
1.10.3 Fillers and Reinforcements——————————————————————————– 20
1.10.4 Lubricants—————————————————————————————————– 20
1.11 PROCESSING OF PVC —————————————————————————————– 21
1.11.1 Extrusion —————————————————————————————————— 21
1.11.2 Molding and Forming ————————————————————————————– 22
1.12 GUM ARABIC—————————————————————————————————– 26
1.12.1 Distribution ————————————————————————————————– 27
1.12.2 Structural Composition ———————————————————————————— 28
1.12.3 Chemistry of Gum arabic———————————————————————————- 28
1.12.4 Physical Properties—————————————————————————————— 29
1.12.5 Chemical Properties —————————————————————————————- 31
1.12.6 Uses of Gum Arabic —————————————————————————————- 32
1.13 AIMS AND OBJECTVES OF THIS STUDY————————————————————– 34
1.13.1 Aim of This Study —————————————————————————————– 34
1.13.2 Objectives of this Study———————————————————————————- 34

CHAPTER TWO ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
REVIEW OF PAST WORKS…………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
2.1 GUM ARABIC—————————————————————————————————– 35
2.1.1 Pharmacological Properties——————————————————————————- 38
2.1.2 Toxicity of Gum Arabic ———————————————————————————– 39
2.2 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF PVC ————————————————————– 41
2.3 EFFECT OF ADDITIVES ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF PVC——————- 42
2.4 EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF PVC ———– 49
2.5 DEFECTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF PVC—————————————————————- 50
2.6 MODIFICATION OF POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)—————————————————– 51
2.7 DEGRADATION————————————————————————————————– 52
2.8 TOXICOLOGICAL CONCERNS—————————————————————————– 55
2.9 PVC TESTS FOR MECHANICAL AND OTHER RELATED PROPERTIES——————————- 56

CHAPTER THREE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
MATERIALS AND METHOD………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
3.1 MATERIALS USED———————————————————————————————- 61
3.2 COLLECTION AND PURIFICATION———————————————————————- 61
3.3 CHARACTERIZATION—————————————————————————————– 61
3.3.1 Percentage Yield——————————————————————————————— 61
3.3.2 pH Determination———————————————————————————————- 62
3.3.3 Viscosity Measurement ———————————————————————————— 62
3.3.4 Moisture Content ——————————————————————————————– 62
3.3.5 Ash Content————————————————————————————————— 62
3.3.6 Determination of Crude Protein————————————————————————– 63
3.3.7 Percentage Lipid Determination ————————————————————————- 63
3.3.8 Total Carbohydrate Content —————————————————————————— 64
3.3.9 Internal Energy————————————————————————————————— 64
3.3.10 Melting Point ———————————————————————————————– 64
3.3.11 Density Measurement ————————————————————————————– 65
3.3.12 Ftir Analysis————————————————————————————————– 65
3.3.13 GC-MS——————————————————————————————————— 65
3.4 GUM MODIFICATION —————————————————————————————– 66
3.4.1 Chemical Modification————————————————————————————- 66
This was performed by acid hydrolysis, acetolysis, and acetate formation.——————————– 66
3.4.2 Physical Modification ————————————————————————————– 67
3.5 PVC FORMULATION——————————————————————————————- 67
3.6 FILM CASTING————————————————————————————————— 67
3.7 MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTING——————————————————————– 68
3.8 PERCENT WATER ABSORPTION ————————————————————————- 68

CHAPTER FOUR…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………………… 70
4.1 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PURE GUM ARABIC————————————————– 71
4.2 PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF GUM SAMPLES ——————————————– 72
x
4.3 FTIR OF ANALYSIS OF TEST SAMPLES ————————————————————— 78
4.4 GC/MS ————————————————————————————————————— 84
4.4.1 GC-MS of Gum Modifications————————————————————————— 84
4.5 WATER ABSORPTION—————————————————————————————– 90
4.6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES——————————————————————————– 90
4.6.1 Tensile strength ———————————————————————————————- 92
4.6.2 Elastic Modulus———————————————————————————————- 95
4.6.3 Percentage Elongation of the Samples —————————————————————– 97

CHAPTER FIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
RECOMMENDATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101

INTRODUCTION 

Polysaccharides have been described as high molecular weight polymers formed by condensation of many monosaccharide units or their derivatives. They have also been defined as polymeric substances, the building blocks of which are monosaccharide. From the foregoing, polysaccharides could be said to be long chain carbohydrate molecules built from some monosaccharides such as glucose, rhamnose, galactose, etc. or their derivatives.

Polysaccharides could be classified based on their chemical compositions. In this regard a polysaccharide which yields only one type of monosaccharide on hydrolysis is called homoglycan e.g starch, while those which yield two or more types of monosaccarides are called heteroglycan e.g. gum Arabic (Varki et al, 2008). 

REFERENCES

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CSN Team.

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