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Factors Militating Against Effective Environmental Sanitation in Awka Metropolitan City of Awka Anambra State

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Factors  Militating Against Effective Environmental  Sanitation in Awka Metropolitan City of Awka Anambra State.

Introduction

Background of the Study

In its modern concept, environment includes not only water, air and soil but the social and economic condition under which we live (Park, 2011).

The key to mans health lie largely on his environment. Infact, much of mans’ ill-health can be traced to adverse environmental factors such as water, soil and air pollution poor housing conditions, presence of animal reservoir and insects vectors of diseases, which poses serious threats to man’s health.

Man is often responsible for the pollution of the environment through urbanization, industrialization and other human activities.

According to the National sanitation foundation of USA, the word sanitation is defined as “way of life that is expressed in the clean lines of homes, farms, business, premises, neighbourhood and community Parks (2011).

Furthermore, World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces and other waste materials (UNICEF and WHO 2012)

Environmental Sanitation is a process whereby the environment is kept clean and conditions that promote health and prevent diseases are maintained (Park, 1995).

Similarly, Ezeka (2004) described Environmental Sanitation as the reduction of hazardous and hostile elements in the environment such as minimizing environmental pollution of all types and also creating and maintaining good environmental conditions that promotes health and prevents diseases.

Hence inadequate environmental sanitation is a major cause of disease, world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on quality health.

In addition, environmental sanitation is the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise deleterious effect on his physical development, Health and survival according to WHO.

It can also be seen as the principle and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions in the environment to promote public health and welfare, improve quality of life and ensure a sustainable environment. (Alabi, 2010).

The essential components of environmental sanitations include: solid waste management, medical waste management, excreta and sewage management, food sanitation, sanitary inspection of premises, market and Abattoir Sanitation, adequate potable water supply, school sanitation, pest and vector control.

In most developing countries adequate environmental sanitation has not been strictly adhered to. For example in some part of Nigeria, living with waste as part of the natural environment has become a way of life.

Although there has been a remarkable improvement from what it used to be in the late eighties/nineties, there is still much to do as Awka the “capital of Anambra State” is constantly increasing by vast population through steady influx of people of all works of life into the city.

The necessity of environmental sanitation made the researcher to focus their study on the identification of sanitation problems and ways of solving them.

For instance Aniefiok (2004) noted that solid waste management practices was generally poor among household members, private waste collectors and municipal wastes collectors as well as problems in the transportation of the refuse to the point of final disposal and the methods of its final disposal. These refuse consist mostly of garbage, ashes, paper, empty cans sewage and also industrial wastes.

References

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Anambra State Environmental Protection Agency, (2016). Environmental pollution and its health hazards in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Nursing & Midwifery,  7 (2)pp 35-50

Aniefiok, (2004). Annual Review World Bank. Washington D.C Sanitation Wiki-Media Foundation

ASESA, (1985). Environmental Exodus: ‘An emergent crisis in the global arena’ Washington D.C Climate Institute, USA

ASWAMA  (2011). Random House Inc.Sustainable sanitation

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Ezeka, (2004). The legacy of landfills in Mustafa, N. (ed) plastics waste management disposal, recycling and reuse. Marcel Dekker Publishers, Inc. New York.

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Park, (1995). Construction of Waste Recycling Process, Research Report, Victoria BC. Business Dictionary.

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Uguoma,(2012). Socio-anthropological determinants and home managements of Karachi Pakistan. Journal of Tropical Paediatrics  40:23-30

UNICEF and WHO, (2012). Emergency preparedness and response to Ibadan flood disaster : implications for wellbeing,  5(8).2

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Vanguard (2013). Geographic information systems and cellular automata based model of informal settlement growth. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Melbourne, 2003. Int. J. Soc. Sci.,3(3).

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