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Framework for Sustainable Design of Photovoltaic Home Systems in North-Western Nigeria

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Framework for Sustainable Design of Photovoltaic Home Systems in North-Western Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This study aims at establishing monthly average electric energy demand of various household types and the Insolation level in order to develop a sustainable design framework and design kit for Photovoltaic home systems application in the area.

A field survey using multi-stage stratified purpose sampling was adopted in Zaria Metropolis where a sample of one hundred and twenty (120) households was drawn from twelve (12) clusters to assess basic household energy demand.

Meteorological data were also collected from the seven states of northwestern Nigeria to estimate and evaluate insolation potentials of twenty-one (21) locations drawn through stratification method.

Web-based computer design Kit running on the Hypertext preprocesses(PHP) and MySQL scripting language was also developed. The design kit utilises the averages of different household’s energy demands and Insolation levels of locations as database for sustainable implementation.

Six household types: single member; nuclear; shared; extended; collective living and provider-managed were identified in Nigeria with 1456.67 kWh as the overall average monthly energy demand of the households.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Certification- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -iv
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – vii
Table of Content- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – viii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -xi
List of Figures- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – xii
List of Plate- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -xiv
List of Appendices- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –xv
List of Acronyms And Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –xvi

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – — 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4
1.3 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -7
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -10

2 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 13
2.1. CONCEPT OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS- – – – – – – – -13
2.1.1 Modes of Household Energy Consumption- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 14
2.1.2 Household Energy Demand- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.1.3 Sources of Electric Energy in Nigeria- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
2.1.4 National Grid Network- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.1.5 Challenges and Constraints of Power Transmission and
Distribution in Nigeria- – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.1.6 Sustainable Renewable Energy Technologies (SRETs): – – – – – – – -30
2.1.7 Types of Households in Nigeria- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -34
2.1.8 Concept of Energy Audit and Survey- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -35
2.2 BASIC ASPECTS OF INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION (INSOLATION) – -38

3 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY- – – – – – – – – – – — – — — – -75
3.1 RESEARCH METHODS- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75
3.1.1 Research Study Area and Sample Size – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75

4 CHAPTER 4 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION – – 86
4.1 HOUSEHOLD ENERGY DEMAND- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – 86
4.2 INSOLATION POTENTIALS OF NORTH WESTERN NIGERIA- – – – – – – – 90
4.2.1 Derived Empirical Constants of Locations- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 97
4.2.2 Clearness Index (KT) of the Locations- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 109
4.3 SOLAR HOME SYSTEM DESIGN – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — -111
4.3.1 Solar Home System Design Kit (SHSDK) – – – – — – – – – – – – — – – – – – 113
4.3.2 Basic stages of SHSDK Developed with some snapshot- – – – – – – – – – 117
4.3.3 SHSDK Installation Requirement and Procedure- – – – – – – – – – – – – – 121

5 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION – – – – 122
5.1 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 122
5.2 CONCLUSION – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 124
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -125
REFERENCES- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 127
APPENDICES- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 136

INTRODUCTION

One of the basic indices of development of any society is the steady supply of electric power towards the attainment of its diverse energy needs (which ranges from environmental comfort to commercial and industrial infrastructural support base).

In Nigeria, however, erratic power supply by Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) has given cause for concern to the general populace leading to the optional use of electricity generating sets for household and commercial uses in homes, streets and market places.

The use of these generating sets contributes to sizeable amount of air, water, soil and noise pollution particularly in urban areas.

REFERENCES

Abah J.C, Ochagwuba R.E. (2001). Design of a Solar Photovoltaic-Powered Charging and Lighting System for Rural Application. Namoda Tech-Scope: A journal of Applied Science and Technology. Vol. 4 No. 2 Jan/June2001 p 126-134.

AbdulAziz, A.D. (2012). Development of a Prototype Electronic Document and Record Management System (EDRMS) for Small and Medium Building Construction Firms. Unpublished Phd Dissertation. Department of Building, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

Abdulsalam D. (2007). Performance Evaluation of Split-system AC for electric energy consumption and cooling performance. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Building, ABU Zaria.

Abdulsalam, D., Aliyu S.S. and Muhammad S. (2009). Energy Audit in Residential Buildings: Implications in Attaining Sustainable Built Environment, 1st Annual National Conference on Sustainable Environment in Nigeria. ATBU Bauchi, Nigeria.

Abdulsalam, D., Mbamali I. and Zubairu I.K. (2010). Sustainability of solar home systems for a domestic power supply in Nigeria In: Laryea, S., Leiringer, R. and Hughes, W. (Eds) Procs West Africa Built environment Research (WABER) Conference, 27-28 July 2010, Accra, Ghana, 499-508

Abubakar N. A. (1983). Strategies in Technological Take-off in Nigeria: are we in the right direction. Nigerian Journal of Science and Technology. Vol. 1,

Adamu M. Z., Adebayo B.A., Bajoga B.G., Ambafi J.G., and Omokhafe J.T. (2012). Reliability Evaluation of Kainji Hydro-Electric Power Station in Nigeria. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012

Adeoti .O. (2000). Solar photovoltaic-based home electrification system for rural development in Nigeria. Published Project work. Agricultural Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti.

CSN Team.

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