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Influence of Achievement Motivation and Demographic Characteristics on Academic Performance Of Nomadic Fulani Girls in Adamawa State

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Influence of Achievement Motivation and Demographic Characteristics on Academic Performance Of Nomadic Fulani Girls in Adamawa State.

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the influence of achievement motivation and demographic characteristics on academic performance of nomadic Fulani primary school girls’ in Adamawa State.

The survey and expost-facto designs were employed for the study which used a sample of 300 primary six nomadic Fulani girls from 38 schools. Random sampling technique was used to select the sample.

The instruments for data collection were Achievement Motivation Rating Scale (AMRS) and Nomadic Girls’ Achievement Test (NGAT) with reliability coefficient of 0.58 and 0.61 respectively.

Three research questions and seven hypotheses guided the study. Mean, standard deviation and percentages were calculated in order to answer research questions while t-test, one-way analysis of variance and factorial analysis were used to test hypotheses.

The results of the study showed that nomadic Fulani girls have high achievement motivation, but low academic performance. It was also discovered that all demographic factors affect their achievement motivation and academic performance with the exception of age.

Among other things, it was recommended that schools be located near nomads’ homesteads and collaboration between NCNE, UBEC, religious and traditional leaders to eradicate betrothal and early marriage in order to boost nomadic Fulani girls academic performance.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION——— ii

CERTIFICATION— iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT—— iv

DEDICATION— vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS——– viii

LIST OF TABLES—- xii

LIST OF APPENDICES——- xvi

ABSRACT——- xvii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY—————————————— 1
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM—————————————- 7
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY———————————————— 8
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS————————————————– 9
  • HYPOTHESES—————————————————————- 9
  • THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK———————– 11
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY————————————— 14
  • DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY————————————— 16
  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS—————————– 17

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE

  • THE CONCEPT OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION—————– 19
    • The Concept of Nomadism———————————————- 23
    • The Concept of Academic Performance—————————— 25
    • Characteristics of the Achieving Individual————————– 26
  • THEORIES OF MOTIVATION——————————————– 32
    • Instinct Theories———————————————————- 32
    • Drive Theories———————————————————— 34
    • Need Theories————————————————————- 35
  • NOMADIC EDUCATION————————————————— 36
  • ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE 48
  • DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE—— 51
    • Age and Nomadic Fulani Girls Education—————————- 51
    • School Distance and Nomadic Fulani Girl Education————– 52
    • Betrothal and Nomadic Fulani Girls Education———————- 53
    • Birth Order and Nomadic Fulani Girls Education——————- 54
    • Socio-Economic Status and Nomadic Fulani Girls’ Education – 55
    • Parents’ Educational Levels and Nomadic Fuolani Girls’ Education 57
  • EMPIRICAL STUDIES ON NOMADIC GIRLS’ EDUCATION——— 58
  • Studies Outside Nigeria————————————————- 59
  • Empirical Studies on Nomadic Girls’ Education in Nigeria——– 62
  • SUMMARY OF RELATED LITERATURE——————————- 70

CHAPTER THREE METHODS AND PROCEDURE

  • RESEARCH DESIGN—————————————————— 72
  • POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF STUDY—————————– 73
    • Population of Study——————————————————- 73
    • Sample of Study———————————————————– 76
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUES———————————————— 76
  • INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION————————— 79
    • Description of Instruments———————————————- 79
      • Achievement Motivation Rating Scale——————————– 79
      • Nomadic Girls Achievement Test———————————– 80
    • Procedures for Development and Validation of Instruments—— 80
    • Validation of Instruments———————————————— 84
    • Reliability of the |Instrument (NGAT)——————————— 86
  • PROCEDERE FOR DATA COLLECTION—————————— 86
    • Co0ordination of Research Assistants——————————– 87
    • Administration and Scoring of the Interactions———————- 90
    • Administration and Scoring of Achievement Motivation

Rating Scale——- 90

  • Administration and Scoring of the Nomadic Girls Achievement Test (NGAT——— 92
  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS—————————————— 92
    • Research Questions—————————————————– 93
    • Testing of Research Hypotheses————————————– 93

CHAPTER FOUR RESULT AND DISCUSSION

  • RESULTS——————- 97
    • Research Question One————————————————- 97
    • Research Question Two————————————————- 99
    • Research Question Three——————————————— 102
    • Research Hypothesis One——————————————— 104
    • Research Hypothesis Two——————————————– 126
    • Research Hypothesis Three—————————————— 149
    • Research Hypothesis Four——————————————– 151
    • Research Hypothesis Five——————————————– 154
    • Research Hypothesis Six——————————————— 157
    • Research Hypothesis Seven—————————————- 160
  • DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS——————————————- 163
    • Level of Nomadic Fulani Girls’ Achievement Motivation——— 163
    • Level of Nomadic Fulani Girls Academic Performance———– 165
    • Distribution of Nomadic Fulani Girls’ Demographic Characteristics 166
    • Demographic Characteristics and Nomadic Fulani Girls Achievement Motivation—- 169

Demographic Characteristics and Academic Performance—178

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

  • SUMMARY OF FINDINGS——————————— 188
  • CONCLUSION———————————————– 190
  • RECOMMENDATIONS————————————- 190
  • LIMMITATIONS———————————————- 192
  • SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY———————– 193
  • CONTRIBUTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY——————– 193

REFERENCES——– 196

APPENDICES—— 217

INTRODUCTION

National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) records for the past two decades show low performance of nomadic Fulani girls compared to that of boys (NCNE, 2006).

Ahmed (2000) reports the low performance by nomadic Fulani girls on the National Common Entrance Examinations which was 38% in 1992, 34% in 1993, 36% in 1994 and 40% in 1995 and 1998.

Also Muhammad (2000) discovered that nomadic Fulani children perform slightly better in Fulfulde than on the English language test. They perform particularly low in spelling, punctuation and reading.

This low academic performance according to Ezeomah (1983, 1987), Mohammed (1989), Muhammad (2000) informed concern shown parents, teachers, and educationists over the poor academic performance of nomadic Fulani girls in school.

Their poor performance is reflected in assigned tasks and examinations conducted for promotion from one class to another. Also the continuous assessment scores for eligibility for transition from primary to junior primary school are poor.

REFERENCES

Abdul-mumin, S. (2002). Pastoral children and stake holders’ assessment of nomadic education in Nigeria: A tentative report of a consultative survey of nomadic education pupils, communities and the CBOs/NGOs. A paper presented at an international conference on nomadic education in Nigeria: Issues and directions. Rockview Hotel, Abuja.

Adamawa State Universal Basic Education Board. (2006). Statistics on Enrolment and Drop-out rate in Nomadic Primary Schools. Yola

Adamawa State Universal Basic Education Board. (2007). Statistics on Enrolment and Drop-out rate in Nomadic Primary Schools. Yola

Adam, J.Y. (2002). The roles of pastoralists NGOs in nomadic education in Nigeria: The experiences of Al-Hayah. A paper presented at an international conference on nomadic education in Nigeria: Issues and directions. Abuja.

Adaw, E. (1986). Education for pastoral nomads of Kenya. An alternative approach for basic education. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, Institute of Education, University of London.

CSN Team.

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