Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) and Rural Poverty Alleviation : Current School News

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Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) and Rural Poverty Alleviation in Enugu State (2008-2015)

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– Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Rural Poverty Alleviation in Enugu State (2008-2015) –

ABSTRACT

Globally, prominent among the current greatest threats to human existence, is poverty and hunger. In fact, to state that the scourge of poverty has assumed the dimension of a global epidemic is a repetition of the obvious.

We have a situation where a greater of the world population lives below one dollar a day or can hardly afford a meal. In the third world countries, of which Nigeria is one, the situation remains pathetic and pitiable.

Subsequently, the 189 United Nations member-States gathered in September 2000 and adopted the Millennium Declaration; a significant step towards promoting global development and indeed rural development by the year 2015.

The Millennium Declaration encapsulates eight (8) concrete commitments and their targets called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

In view of the formal end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the adoption of sustainable development goals (SDGs) at the UN summit held from September 25-27, 2015, at UN Headquarters, this research work sought to examine a key area of rural development; rural poverty alleviation.

In this vein, this project report MDGs and Rural Poverty Alleviation in Enugu State (2008-2015), had as its general objective to examine the impact of the millennium development goals in the attainment of rural poverty alleviation in Enugu State.

While specifically, its objectives include; to examine the impacts of the MDGs programmes on poverty alleviation in rural areas in Enugu State, examining how corruption has affected the realization of MDGs poverty alleviation programmes in rural areas of Enugu State and examining how MDGs rural poverty alleviation programmes have been achieved in Enugu State through community participation.

To accomplish this task, the research adopted the descriptive survey research design and employed both the primary and secondary data to arrive at its findings and conclusion.

The researcher also utilized frequency tables, simple percentages and bar charts in presenting and analyzing the data generated. Three research hypotheses were formulated and tested with the Chi-Square statistical test.

The Chi-square and interview results and government data relating to each of the hypotheses were analyzed and the findings and conclusions were drawn under each of the hypotheses.

Subsequent to the analysis, the research found that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have positively impacted on the life of rural dwellers in Enugu State, especially through the conditional grant scheme (CGS) and the conditional cash transfer (CCT).

That community participation has significantly contributed to the realization of rural poverty alleviation. That corruption, poor funding and implementation had limited the impact of the MDGs programmes.

The research recommended increased funding from the Federal government, the appointment of qualified people in the implementation committee and synergy with anti-corruption agencies to fight corruption, as a way of optimizing the benefits of the MDGs rural poverty alleviation.

The research concluded that the MDGs poverty alleviation and developmental programmes are laudable, and deserve maximum support from both the government and the governed so that the benefits could maximally extend to all and sundry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i
Certification ii
Approval iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Table of contents vii
List of figures ix
List Tables xi
List of acronyms xiv
Abstract xvi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objective of Study 6
1.4 Significance of Study 7
1.5 Scope of Study 8

CHAPTER TWO Literature Review and Research Procedure 10

2.1 Literature Review 10
2.1.1 Introduction 10
2.1.2 The Concepts of Millennium Development Goals, Rural Development, Poverty Alleviation and Community Participation. 10
2.1.3 Origin of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 21
2.1.5 Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria. 25
2.1.6 The Challenges of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria 31
2.1.7 The MDGs Community Participation Approach to Rural Poverty Alleviations 36
2.2 Theoretical Framework 39
2.3 Hypothesis 41
2.4 Operationalization of Key Concepts 42
2.5 Research Procedure 43
2.5.1 Research Design 44
2.5.2 Population of Study 44
2.5.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 44
2.5.4 Method of Data Collection 45
2.5.5 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instruments 46
2.5.6 Method of Data Analysis 47

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Background Information on the Study Area 48
3.1 Background Information on Enugu State 48
3.1.1 The Political Structure 50
3.1.3 Interface of Enugu State’s 4 – Point Agenda/Seeds with MDGs 53
3.2 Background Information of Nkanu West Local Government Area 60
3.3 Background Information of Nsukka Local Government Area 62
3.4 Background Information of Udi Local Government Area 65

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis, Findings, Discussion of Findings. 67
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 68
4.1.1 Background Information of the Respondents 68

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion 137
5.1 Summary 137
5.2 Recommendation 140
5.3 Conclusion 142
Bibliography 144
APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Development is phenomenal and indispensable. It is a multidimensional, continuous, and comprehensive process.

Development affects and transforms both the human and non-human aspects of the society and empowers humans to effectively combine their efforts to manipulate their environment for their own good. According to Hanifan (1916), cited in (Okeibunor, 2011:18):

I do not refer to real estate, or to personal property or to cold cash, but rather to that in life which tends to make these tangible substances count for most in the daily lives of people, namely, goodwill, fellowship, mutual sympathy, and social intercourse among a group of individuals and families who make up a social unit…

If he may come into contact with his neighbour, and they with other neighbours, there will be an accumulation of social capital, which may immediately satisfy his social needs and which may bear a social potentiality to the substantial improvement of living conditions in the whole community.

The above view, points to the importance of development. Development has to provide both tangible substances and social capital (human skills, potentials and wherewithal) for individual and collective use of these tangible substances for the improvement of human living standards, now and in the future. Such ideal situation as captured by Hanifan, cannot be more appreciated than in the rural areas.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Achebe, C. (1988:11-12). The Trouble with Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd.
African Forum and Network on Debt and Development (AFRODAD). (2005). The Politics of the MDGs and Nigeria: A Critical Appraisal of the Global Partnership for Development (Goal 8). Harare: AFRODAD.
Ahmed, M. (2006). Social Studies. Kaduna: National Teacher Institute (NTI) Press.
Birchill, I. D. (2004). Methods for Active Participation: Experiences in Rural Development from East and Central Africa. Nairobi: Oxford University Press.
Calderisi, R. (2006), The Trouble with Africa: Why Foreign Aid Isn’t Working. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Chovwen, A. et al (2009). Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: An Assessment of Water and Sanitation Intervention of the Ikaram Millennium Village, Nigeria. Ondo: MDG Centre, WA.
Ezirim, A.C. et al. (2006). Research Methodology for Management and Social Sciences. Owerri: JESO International (Nig).

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