Occupational Stress Among Nurses and Patient’s Quality Care in St. Luke’s Hospital Anua
The study examined the influence of occupational stress among nurses on patient’s quality care in St. Luke’s hospital Anua – Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. Occupation is work that one does especially a productive one for which one is regularly paid and stress is a reaction to an internal or external demand which could be caused by physical, mentally demanding burden.
Hence, occupational stress can be viewed as a physical or mental burden occurring at work and could be elicited by factors some of which are; harsh working environment, lack of understanding and support from managers, confronting everyday grief and deaths, dealing with difficult patients and poor staffing ratio which could result in ill-health, burnout, high labour turnover, absenteeism, poor morale and low performance among nurses.
For this research, the objectives were to; determine the relationship of work environment, staffing ratio and stress coping strategies among nurses and patient’s quality care in St. Luke’s Hospital, Anua – Uyo.
The research design was descriptive and the setting was conducted in St. Luke’s Hospital, Uyo with an accessible population of one hundred (100), convenience sampling technique was adopted for the study, instrument for data collection was a structured closed – ended questionnaire made up of four sections with a total of twenty questions.
Validity and reliability of instrument was by face validity and test re-test method of reliability testing. Data collection was by face – to – face and data analysis was done through usage of statistical tables, frequency and compound bar chart.
The results of the research revealed that there exists a positive relationship between occupational stress among nurses and patient’s quality care.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that; hospital managers should ensure that they have an effective way of managing stress in order to maximize patient’s quality care.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover page – – – – i
Title – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – v
Acknowledgements – – – – vi
Table of content – – – – vii
List of Tables – – – – viii
List of Figures – – – – ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – 5
1.3 Research questions – – – 6
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – 6
1.5 Significance of the study – – – 7
1.6 Scope of study – – – 7
1.7 Operational definition of terms – – 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual review – – – 10
2.1.1 Concept of occupational stress – – 10
2.1.2 Sources of Stress – – – 11
2.1.3 Effects of occupational stress on patient’s quality care – 12
2.2 Theoretical review – – – 12
2.2.1 Cannon’s theory of homeostasis – – 12
2.2.2 Selye’s adaptation theory of stress – – 14
2.2.3 Theory of Cognitive Appraisal by Lazarus and Folkman – 16
2.3 Empirical review – – – 18
2.3.1 Nurses’ work environment and patient’s quality care – 18
2.3.2 Nurses’ staffing ratio and patient’s quality care – 20
2.3.3 Nurses’ stress coping strategies and patient’s quality care – 21
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design – – – – 23
3.2 Setting – – – – 23
3.3 Target population – – – 24
3.4 Sampling technique – – – 24
3.5 Instrument for data collection – – 24
3.6 Validity of instrument – – – 24
3.7 Reliability of instrument – – – 25
3.8 Method of data collection – – – 25
3.9 Method of data analysis – – – 25
3.10 Ethical consideration – – – 26
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Presentation of results using charts and tables – 28
4.2 Description of content of tables and charts – – 35
4.3 Answering research questions – – 37
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.1 Identification of key findings – – – 38
5.2 Implications of study with literature support and alignment
of findings with previous studies cited – – 38
5.3 Implications to nursing – – – 42
5.4 Limitations of the study – – – 42
5.5 Summary – – – – 43
5.6 Conclusion – – – – 44
5.7 Recommendations – – – 44
5.8 Suggestions for further studies – – 45
References – – – – 46
Occupation or work plays an important role in individual’s social lives, providing the support of a regular income, opportunities and personal growth, social identity and self – esteem (Filha, Maria, and Guilam, 2013). Given the many benefits of occupation to an individual, one’s occupation can pose a negative threat to human life in the form of stress. No doubt Kortum (2014) posited that, the health impact of stress at work negatively affects workers and their communities with a clear financial impact on business and beyond.
He further stated that a healthy workplace is one in which workers and managers collaborate to use a continual improvement process to protect and promote the health, safety and wellbeing of all workers and the sustainability of the workplace.
Nevertheless, given the value of an occupation in this era, the amount of time spent at work and the current changes that are affecting the nature of work; it is not surprising that stress appears to be on the increase.
Stress has been regarded as an occupational hazard long time ago, since the mid – 1950’s. In fact, occupational stress has been mentioned as a major health problem (Jones, 2012).
According to Jones (2012), stress is an occupational hazard for the modern day employee as a result of the stimulation of an individual’s physical and psychological states based on demands and expectations. Lunenburg and Ornstein (2011) stated that; it is the effect of opportunities involving uncertainties as well as important outcomes.
Stress is a state produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening or damaging to a person’s dynamic balance or equilibrium. It creates tension in the individual as he/she is unable to meet the demands of the new situation (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle and Cheever, 2014).
Furthermore, Radhakrishnan and Jins (2012) referred to stress as a sum of physical, mental, emotional strains or tensions on a person or feelings of stress which result from people interacting with the environment they live in, that are alleged as hurting and/or beyond their adaptive aptitude and having threats to human wellbeing.
Stress is not altogether that bad as it is necessary in the day to day lives of individuals. On this note, Kerrien, Pougnet, Garlantezec, Pougnet, LeGaludec, Lodde and Dewitte (2015) stated that stress can either be positive friendly stress (Eustress) or negative harmful stress (Distress).
Here, what someone perceives as a threat or a danger, someone else can perceive it as a challenge or motivation. However, stress is often termed as the twentieth century syndrome borne out of high competition and its subsequent complexities.
It is a state of affair involving demand on physical or mental energy which can disturb the normal physiological and psychological functioning of an individual (Indoo and Ajeya, 2012). Stress up to a certain point will improve people’s performance and quality of life.
It is healthy and essential that they should experience challenges within their lives but if pressure or other types of demands placed on them become excessive, it loses its beneficial effect and become harmful (Kerrien et al., 2015)
Nursing is by its very nature, an occupation subject to a high degree of stress, confronting everyday suffering, grief and death and with many of its tasks being considered as routine, unrewarding and degrading (Jelastopulu, Tsouvaltzidou, Evangelia. Fanl, John and Alexopoulus, 2013).
Hospitals in particular are facing a workforce crisis while the demand for health care services is growing concurrently with changing career expectations among potential health care workers and increasing dissatisfaction among existing hospital staff (Hakanen and Schaufeli, 2012). With this trend, work related stress is imminent.
Although many factors are implicated as stressors in the workplace, lack of understanding and support from managers also contributes significantly to the appearance of stress.
A negative environment within the organization also impacts negatively on the wellbeing of workers. Occupational stress is a major health difficulty for both individual workers and organisations and can produce burnout, illness, high labour turnover, absenteeism, poor morale and reduced competence and performance (Hussein, Aniza and Ahmad, 2012).
Health work such as nursing profession according to Indoo and Ajeya (2012) is a challenging job because of its nature.
Nurses are continually faced with professional work demands as well having to deal with difficult patients, increased workload, personal or family meeting deadlines, environmental pressure, long work hours, single job and high demands.
All these factors can actually leave an employee physically and emotionally drained as it can interfere with physical and psychological wellbeing.
Indoo and Ajeya (2012) supported Jelastopulu (2013) by stating that nursing profession is one of the most susceptible professional groups to occupational stress as they often run into stressful situations due to the special demands of their profession.
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