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Pharmacognostic and Lactogenic Studies of the Leaves of Stachytarpheta Jamaicensis (l.) Vahl (Verbenaceae)

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Pharmacognostic and Lactogenic Studies of the Leaves of Stachytarpheta Jamaicensis (l.) Vahl (Verbenaceae).

ABSTRACT

Based on the ethnomedicinal use and belief that Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (SJ) can increase milk supply in lactating women, experimental studies were carried out to determine the effect of crude methanol extract (CME) and fractions of SJ leaves on serum PRL levels.

The pharmacognostic standards, preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity study were also carried out. The fresh leaves were collected, cleaned, air-dried and pulverized. A photomicroscope was used in the qualitative microscopic recognition of the characteristic cell types and cell contents present in the powdered leaf.

The quantitative microscopy of the leaf of SJ showed the values of palisade ratio, stomata number, stomata index, vein-islet number and vein termination number to be 4.42 ± 2.53, (105.67 ± 2.73, 277 ± 17.08), (28.00 ± 2.31, 21.00 ±  2.51), 15.67 ± 0.66 and 3.50 ± 0.00 respectively.

For  the  analytical standards; 11.85 ±0.06, 2.17 ± 0.00, 8.80 ± 0.14, 2.04 ± 0.02, 2.51 ± 0.15, 4.85 ±0.22 and 4.30 ± 0.02 were obtained for total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extractive value, water soluble extractive value and moisture content respectively.

The extraction process yielded 19.31 % W/W of the CME while the fractionation  process yielded 36.70 % W/W, 10.00 % W/W, 26.15 % W/W and 27.80 % W/W of n-hexane fraction (HF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n- butanol fraction (BF) and water fraction (WF) respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification- – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – viii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – xi
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – xii
Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – xvi

CHAPTER ONE:GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 Lactogenesis – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.1 Definitions – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.2 Stages of Lactogenesis – – – – – – – 3
1.1.3 Physiology of the breast – – – – – – 6
1.2 Lactation: Physiology of breastfeeding – – – – 7
1.2.1 How Breastfeeding works. – – – – – – 8
1.2.2 When the breast starts making milk – – – – – 10
1.2.3 Hormones responsible for Lactogenesis – – – – 11
1.2.4 Milk Ejection Reflex – – – – – – – 14
1.3 Factors that improves lactation – – – – – – 15
1.3.1 Non-Pharmacological factors – – – – – – 15
1.3.2 Pharmacological factors – – – – – – 17
1.3.2.1 Synthetic Galactogogues – – – – – – 17
1.3.2.2 Herbal/Natural Galactogogues – – – – – 20
1.4 Factors that decreases lactation. – – – – – 22
1.4.1 Non-pharmacological factors – – – – – – 22
1.4.2 Pharmacological factors – – – – – – 23
1.4.2.1 Synthetic Medications – – – – – – 23
1.4.2.2 Herbs that may decrease milk supply – – – – 25
1.5 The Plant Stachytarpheta jamaicensis – – – – 25
1.5.1 Plant Taxanomy – – – – – – – – 25
1.5.2 Description of the plant – – – – – – – 28
1.5.3 Geographical Distribution of the plant – – – – 29
1.5.4 Chemical Constituents of the plant. – – – – – 30
1.5.5 Ehnomedicinal Uses. – – – – – – – 31
1.6 Standardization of Herbal Medicines – – – – – 32
1.6.1 Pharmacognostic Standardization of herbal medicines – – 32
1.6.2 Macroscopical Standards – – – – – – 33
1.6.3 Microscopical Standards – – – – – – 34
1.6.3.1 Qualitative Microscopy – – – – – – 35
1.6.3.2 Quantitative Microscopy – – – – – – 35
1.6.4 Analytical Standards – – – – – – – 37
1.6.5 Structural Standards – – – – – – – 39
1.6.6 Physical Constants as standards – – – – – 39
1.7 Previous Pharmacological Studies – – – – – 40
1.8 Aims and Objectives of study – – – – – – 42

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Collection, Identification and Preparation of plant material – – 43
2.2 Drugs, Chemicals, Reagents and Equipment – – – – 43
2.3 Experimental animals – – – – – – – 44
2.4 Macroscopical Examination of the leaves – – – – 45
2.5 Microscopical Examination of the leaves – – – – 45
2.6 Determination of Analytical Standards – – – – – 47
2.7 Extraction – – – – – – – – – 50
2.8 Fractionation – – – – – – – – 50
2.9 Phytochemical Analysis (procedure) – – – – – 51
2.10 Pharmacological Methods – – – – – – 56
2.10.1 Acute Toxicity and lethality (LD50) test. – – – – 56
2.10.2 Effect of oral treatment of SJ crude methanol extract on serum prolactin (PRL) concentration — 57
2.10.3 Effect of oral treatment of SJ fractions on serum prolactin (PRL) concentration – – 57
2.10.4 Effect of oral treatment of SJ crude methanol extract on mammary gland tissues — 58
2.10.5 Effect of oral treatment of SJ fractions on mammary gland tissues 58
2.11 Statistical Analysis – – – – – – – 59

CHAPTER THREE:RESULTS

3.1 Macroscopical Examination of whole leaf – – – – 60
3.2 Microscopical Examination of the powered leaf. – – – 60
3.3 Analytical Standards of the leaf – – – – – – 72
3.4 Percentage yield – – – – – – – – 73
3.5 Phytochemical Tests – – – – – – – – 74
3.6 Pharmacological Studies – – – – – – – 75
3.6.1 Toxicological Studies – – – – – – – 75
3.6.2 Effect of leaf Extract/Fractionson serum PRL Content- 76
3.6.3 Histological Studies of the mammary gland – – – – 84

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION – – 91

4.1 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 91
4.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 94
References

INTRODUCTION

Lactogenesis is the initiation of lactation (milk secretion), a process of functional differentiation which mammary tissues undergo when changing from non-lactating to a lactating state. This process is normally associated with the end of pregnancy and around the time of parturition (Wilde and Hurley, 1996).

Lactogenesis may also be defined as the onset of milk secretion and includes all of the changes in the mammary epithelium necessary to go from the undifferentiated mammary gland in early pregnancy to full lactation sometimes after parturition (Neville et al., 2001).

The literal meaning of the word is the production of milk by the mammary glands (Mifflin, 2004). Lactogenesis is the result of a series of cellular changes whereby mammary epithelia cells are converted from a non-secretory state to a secretory state. Therefore, lactogenesis is the process of milk production.

It is initiated in the postpartum period by a fall in plasma progesterone, but prolactin (PRL) levels remain high. Lactation is the secretion of milk from the mammary glands of the breast (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

REFERENCES

Alexandre, G.Z.A., Jose, M.S Jr., Eduardo L.A.M., Manuel J.S., Richardo M.O., Mauro A.H., Geraldo R.D.L. and Edmond C.B. (2002). Metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia affects mouse endometrial morphology.Gynecology& obstetric Investigation,54:184-190.

Almeida, R.A., Nevarro, D.S., Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2001). Plant with central analgesic activity. Phytomedicine, 8(4):310-332.

Alvarez, E., Leiro, J.M., Rodriguez, M. and Orallo, F. (2004). Inhibitory Effects of leaf extracts of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis on the respiratory burst of rat macrophages. Phytotherapy Research,18:457-462.

Anderson, E., Charke R.B. and Howel A. (1998). Estrogen Responsiveness and Control of Normal Breast Proliferation. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 3:23-25.

Anderson, P. O. and Valides, V. (2007). A critical review of Pharmaceutical galactogogues. Breastfeeding Medicines, 2(4):229-242.

CSN Team.

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