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Prevalence, Molecular Characterization and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Reproductive Tract Pathogens Isolated from Women of Child Bearing Age

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– Prevalence, Molecular Characterization and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Reproductive Tract Pathogens Isolated from Women of Child-Bearing Age –

ABSTRACT

Reproductive tract infections (rtis) are a major public health problem, especially in the developing world. As part of measures to control the spread of these infections, the World Health Organization recommended syndromic management.
This study set out to determine the prevalence patterns, molecular characteristics, and antibiotic susceptibility of reproductive tract pathogens isolated from women of childbearing age with the aim of contributing useful information to policy formulation regarding treatment and management of these infections.

The study was a laboratory-based cross-sectional prospective study conducted at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), a tertiary health facility and a major referral centre with obstetric and gynaecological services.
The sample size for the study was determined using statemate version 2.0 and results were analyzed using Excel 2007 and SPSS version 17.
A sample size of 500 was determined to be adequate and has a  99% power to detect a difference between group means and a hypothetical mean of 0.96 with an alpha (α)  level of 0.05 (2-tailed) and a beta (β) error of 1%.
Two hundred and sixty-five pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and two hundred and forty-two non-pregnant women attending the general outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study over a 6-month period from April to September 2011.
The non-pregnant women served as controls. The Research and Ethics Committee of UPTH approved the study and all prospective participants gave their voluntary informed consent before they were enrolled in the study.
A standard structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of all participants.

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study
Infectious diseases caused by microorganisms are as old as mankind and different types of remedies have been used for their management.
However, it was not until the turn of the 20th century that the potential of products of these organisms as chemotherapeutic agents was recognized (1).
The discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Flemming in 1928 and its subsequent introduction into clinical use in 1941 through the efforts of Florey and Chain revolutionized the science of chemotherapy with a dramatic effect on several infections  (2).
The years that followed witnessed the successive introduction of other agents such as sulphonamides, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and tetracyclines (3).
Unfortunately, widespread overuse and misuse of these agents led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens (1-4).
Bacterial resistance is the ability of a  bacterium to withstand the effects of antibiotics that were previously able to destroy it (5).
Sadly, microorganisms are able to muster a vast array of resistance mechanisms at an alarming speed in comparison to their host (6).
Novel antimicrobial drug development has in addition suffered a lull as only very few new drugs have been introduced into clinical practice recently (7).
In the absence of strict antibiotic stewardship and prudent use of what is currently available, there is the fear indeed that a return to the pre-antibiotic era may be inevitable (1,  4).
This disturbing scenario is thus a call to action by all stakeholders.
Bacterial isolates are usually broadly categorized either as being susceptible or resistant to chemotherapeutic agents based on certain criteria such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) amongst others.

REFERNENCES

Hardman JG, Limbird LE, and Gilman GA (Eds) In: Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of 12th edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 2012, pp 1143-1170.

Denyer SP, Hodges NA, and Gorman SP (Eds) In: Hugo and  Russel’s  Pharmaceutical Microbbiology.7th Ed, Blackwell Science Ltd, Publishing Company, New York, 2004, p

Brooks GF, Butel JS, and Morse SA In: Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 23rd Ed, Mc GrawHill Coy Inc, Singapore, 2004, pp 161-195.

Finch R, Davey P, Wilcox M, and Irving W. Antimicrobia Chemotherapy 6th Ed, Oxford University Press, London, 2012, pp 93-119

Murray P, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, and Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology, 4th Ed, Mosby Inc, USA, 2002, pp 176-194.

Goering RV, Dockerel HM, Zuckerman M, Roit IM, and Chiodini PL In: Mims Medical Microbiology, 5th Ed, Elsevier Saunders, China, 2013, pp 412-420.

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