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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Spaced teaching technique and Unspaced teaching technique and students’ academic performance in Basic Science and Technology in Junior Secondary School, Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
The population of this study comprised of seven (7) secondary schools with a total population of six thousand four hundred and six (6,406) students out-of which 3340 were males while 3066 were females in Ikot Ekpene educational zone of Akwa Ibom State.
The sample of the study was 103 basic science and technology students obtained from intact classes in the two schools that were used for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select four schools in the study area and two arms of intact class of JSS11 were used to represent experimental and control groups.
The study adopted quasi–experimental, pre-test, post-test control group design with one experimental group and a control group with intact classes from selected schools. Five research questions and five null hypothesis were formulated base on the specific purpose of the study.
The researcher adapted 50 multi-choice performance test items from Junior secondary school past questions, called Spaced Teaching Technique and Students’ Academic Performance in Basic Science and Technology (STTSAPBST). The data for the study were collected by means of structured questionnaire developed by the researcher.
The data collected were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions, while the null hypothesis were tested using 0.5 levels of significance. The study revealed that most students do not have interest in the subject as a result of the inappropriate or conventional method of teaching the subject which often results in poor academic performance of students in the subject.
The state government should see the need to employ qualify basic science and technology teachers as observed and the basic science and technology teachers should not be stereo-typed in the use of instructional methods in classroom as spaced teaching approach will diversify instructional delivery modes and students’ performance is sure to enhance.
Background of the study
The major aim of Basic Science and Technology teaching is to promote the understanding of the concepts being taught with a view to applying knowledge of such understanding to real life situations.
Student performance is one of the readily observable students’ outcomes in the school environment and the consistent poor performance in Basic Science and Technology examinations attests to the fact that Basic Science and Technology teaching has not been properly understood.
This improper teaching has led to a vigorous search for appropriate teaching technique that would best achieve the aim of Basic Science and Technology teaching, thus improving achievement and enhancing skill acquisition of the concept taught (Gabrieli 2009).
According to Iyamu (2005), the effectiveness of the teachers could easily be assessed from the ability of its students to set a given tasks in an orderly way, exhibit discipline, hard work and perform creditably in an examination.
The author noted that whatever criterion is used, the ultimate measure of teachers teaching effectiveness must be based on student academic performance outcomes popularly indicated by their examination results.
In addition, the author argued that teaching could be regarded as effective if students’ exhibit proficiency in reading, writing and computation skills, problem solving and communication skills, practical and vocational skills, exhibit the desired level of knowledge in various subjects in the curriculum and good performance in examination.
Ekalami (2006) defined teaching approach as a variety of technique which a teacher adopts to induce, promote and direct learning. In the view of Awoniyi (2009), teaching approach is the style, manner or way in which a teacher presents information to students in other to achieve educational objectives.
Minkazor (2008) noted that approaches of teaching are very vital in any teaching and learning process and that the approach adopted by a teacher may promote or hinder learning, it may sharpen mental activities, it may discourage initiative and curiosity.
For teaching and learning to be effective, the teacher must be skillful in the selection and utilization of appropriate teaching technique. Any good teaching technique has the ability to hold the students’ interest and attention until the lesson is over. Knowledge of teaching techniques in addition to their applications results in effective teaching and learning.
When a teacher relies upon a single technique such as lecture method, enquiry method, laboratory method, reflective method, expository method, problem-solving method, discovery method, students could be bored and could easily create learning problems such as difficulty in understanding and remembering words or sounds, difficulty in performing mathematical calculations, difficulty in writing and difficulty in reading.
Basic Science and Technology teachers therefore need to be methodologically flexible if the needs, interest and aspirations of the students must be met.
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