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Studies of Sooty Molds of Elected Plants
An incidence survey was carried out on sooty mould disease on plants in January 2018. The symptoms observed in the field were black or dark-brown superficial deposits of soot particularly on the upper leaf surface.
The deposit of the soot varied from a fine soot-like or powdery deposit, to a thick sheet of growth that may cracked or peeled from the leaf surface during dry condition.
The survey was carried out for 3 days on different plant samples which included Margifera indica (mango), Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf), Triptergium wilfordii (Thunder plant), Citrus sp., Sorghum bicolor (Guinea corn), Syzgium samarangense (Water apple), Musa paradisiacal (Plantain).
The incidence of the disease varied from 20% to 100% depending on the plant species infected. The highest incidence of 100% occurred in citrus sp. And sorghum sp. The lowest incidence of 20% occurred in bitter leaf in one location.
The survey was done in Obio Akpa and neighbouring villages in Oruk Anam and Abak Local Government Areas, and also in areas within Uyo Capital Development Authority in Akwa Ibom State.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – –
Declaration – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgment – – – – – – –
Table of Contents – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – –
1.2 Justification of Study – – – – –
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – –
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical Background of Research on
Sooty Moulds – – – – – –
2.2 Phylogeny of Sooty Moulds – – – –
2.3 Life Cycle of Sooty Moulds – – – – –
2.4 Ecology Distribution and Control of Sooty Mould –
2.4.1 Occurrence and Biodiversity – – – – –
2.4.2 Distribution – – – – – – –
2.4.3 Control of Sooty Moulds – – – – –
2.5 Pathogens of Sooty Moulds – – – – –
2.6 Industrial Potential of Sooty Moulds – – –
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Area of Study – – – – – –
3.2 Disease Survey for the Incidence and Severity
of Sooty Mould on the Host – – – – –
3.3 Collection – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Description of Symptoms of Sooty Moulds – –
4.2 Discussion – – – – – – – –
Summary and Conclusion – – – – – – –
The sooty moulds are a group of well over 200 epiphytic foliage species that live on plant surfaces where sap-feeding insects feed on plant foliage. The insects excrete honey dew as a waste product.
The honey dew drips on the foliage below and covers leaves, twigs and even plants, soil and rocks below with a sticky sugary coating. Sooty moulds cover tree limbs and leaves with a thin black material.
The dark color of sooty mould growth is due to the presence of a dark-colored pigment in the mycelia “threads” that makes up the main parts of sooty moulds colonies.
Many sooty mould fungi are sticky and that helps them adhere to the surface on which they grow and adsorb the moisture they need. The black crusty growth can cause yellowing of foliage when the sunlight is obstructed.
Honey dew is largely composed of sugars with small amount of amino acids, proteins, minerals, vitamins and other organic compounds, (Auclair 1963). The sooty moulds grow on this and produce a thin superficial network of dense, dark hyphae (Hughes 1976; Faull et al 2002, Fig. 1).
Sooty moulds are most common in tropical and subtropical region around the world. Most of the sooty moulds have hyphae with mucilaginous outer walls. These readily absorb water and thus maintain moisture on leaf surfaces for long periods. (Batista and Ciferri 1963b).
hyphae of different taxa of sooty moulds are often mixed together sooty moulds colony on the host surface. These usually include asexual and sexual stage of the same or different species, but not all sooty moulds produce a sexual state (Hughes 1972, 1976; Hughes and Seifert 2012).
Species delimitation is a major issue in sooty moulds as they frequently grow together and show noticeable pleomorphy. Some specie are thought to produce as many as three asexual state, which have been allied to one sexual states (Hughes 1976).
However, this information is based on direct observation rather than cultural or molecule proof.
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