Ads: Get Admission into 200 Level and Study any Course in any University of Your Choice. Low Fees | No JAMB UTME. Call 09038456231

The Effects of Contaminants on the Rheological Properties of Water-Basedmud


The Effects of Contaminants on the Rheological Properties of Water-Basedmud.


This project focuses on Investigation of effect of contaminants on the Rheological Properties of Water-based Drilling Mud. For any drilling operation to be termed successful, care must be taken during the selection and application of the drilling fluid which are key factors that should be considered.

Any actions contrary to carefully selection and application of drilling fluids could have very direct consequences. Based on the experiment work done on water base mud system to ascertain the effect of contaminants (salt, Calcium Sulphate, and carbonate) on the rheological properties and performance of the mud, it shows that the presence of a contaminant on the drilling mud either reduces or increases the rheological properties of the mud system and in turn affects the rate of penetration, it performance and also poses serious drilling problems.

It was observed that the presence of Sodium salt in the mud system increased the fluid loss into the formation. It was further observed that while Apparent Viscosity, Gel Strength increases as the mass increase from 3g, 6g & 9g, the pH and Plastic Viscosity almost did not change.

The Yield point increases little.  With Calcium Sulphate as contaminant, it shows all rheological properties of the mud increased significantly, as the quantity of the calcium used is increased from 3g, 6g, 9g to 12g and the pH does not change. Sodium Carbonate contamination has showed noticeable effect on the nature of the drilling mud.

In fact, the more the amount of the contaminant is added, the closer it properties are to the blank sample that do not have contaminants. The carbonate effect is largely on the Gel strength which decreases as the amount of added carbonate increases. The pH has no charges, which also means carbonate keeps the mud in it alkaline state, as it was the case with Sodium.


Title Page

Declaration                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                                                             iii

Acknowledgements                                                                               iv

Abstract                                                                                                 v

Table of Content                                                                                    vi


1.0     Introduction                                                                                 1

1.1     Background of Study                                                             1

1.2     Drilling Mud Contaminant                                                            2

1.3     How to Recognize Contaminant                                                  4

1.4     Natural Occurring Contaminant                                                            5

1.5     Rheological Properties                                                                7

1.6     Statement of Problem                                                                   17

1.7     Objective of Study                                                                       17

1.8     Scope of Study                                                                            18


Literature Review                                                                                  19


Materials and Methods                                                                          24

3.1     Methods                                                                                      24

3.2     Equipment                                                                                   25

3.3     Materials                                                                                     25

3.4     Mud Properties Test                                                               26


Experimental Results and Discussion                                                     32

4.1     Mud System 1                                                                             32

4.2     Mud System 2                                                                             38

4.3     Mud System 3                                                                             44


5.1     Conclusion                                                                                  51

References                                                                                   53


1.1   Background of the Study

The drilling of oil and gas well is a high risk and challenging venture with some associated problems. Despite the challenges, Wells are still being drilled to meet up with the escalating demand for oil and gas. It is the aim of every field operator to get the oil or gas from the reservoir rock to the surface production facilities in a safe and cost-effective way thereby maximize profit by reducing the cost of drilling the required number of wells to drain the reservoir fluid.

Drilling mud is very important to both rotary and directional drilling processes. Although most oil and gas wells drilled nowadays use rotary drilling technique. Without drilling muds and their additives, corporations would find it difficult if not impossible to drill for oil and gas and we would hardly have any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. Basically, drilling mud is a mixture of water, clays, special minerals and chemicals called additives. Drilling mud can also be in non-aqueous form usually called oil-based mud (OBM) and in gaseous phase called gaseous drilling fluid, in which a wide range of gases can be used. A successful drilling operation requires enhanced quality of drilling mud with well formulated properties that will enable them to perform creditably during drilling operations.

Furthermore, the effects of drilling a well without and with drilling mud are;

  • Hydrocarbons blow out due to insufficient pressure.
  • A lot of heat is generated during drilling which can cause bit balling.
  • Drilling strings get stuck due to cutting and formation caving.
  • Formation instabilities; swelling. (That can lead to falling of the formation into the well).
  • Inability to carry cuttings to the surface.


Ali K., Vipulanandan C. and Richardson D.(2013): Salt (NaCl) Contamination of the Resistivity and Plastic Viscosity of Bentonite Drilling Mud, Proceedings of the Center for Innovative Grouting Materials and Technology (CIGMAT) Conference & Exhibition.

API RP13B-1. (2004): Recommended Practice for Field Testing Water-Based Drilling Fluids, Third Edition.

API SPEC 13-A. (2011): Specification for Drilling-Fluid Materials, Seventeenth Edition.

Basirat B., Vipulanandan C. and Richardson D.(2013): Noitle Proceedings of THC-IT Conference & Ehibition.

Bourgogne, A.T. (1996): “Applied Drilling Engineering, SPE Textbook Series, Volume 2, Richardson.

Baker Hughes INTEQ. (1995): Drilling Fluids and Hydraulics”, Drilling Engineering Workbook Series.

Carney, L.L. and Guven, N (1980) Investigation of Changes in the Structure of Clays During Hydrothermal Study of Drilling Fluids, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Max R. Annis 1996.

Carney, L.L., Guven, N. and McGrew, G.T. (1982) Investigation of High-Temperature Fluid Loss Control Agents in Geothermal Drilling Fluids, Proceedings, California Regional Meeting, San Francisco.

Carney, L.L. and Meyer, R.L. (1976): A New Approach to High Temperature Drilling Fluids, Proceedings, 51st Annual Fall Meeting of Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans.

Fosso, S.W., Tina, M., Frigand, I. A. and Crawshaw, J. P. (2000) Viscous-Pill Design Methodology Leads to Increased Cement Plug Success Rate; Application and Case Studies from Southern Algeria, Paper presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Guven, N., Panfill, D.J. and Carney, L.L. (1988) Comparative Rheology of Water Based Drilling Fluids With Various Clays Proceedings of International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Tianjin, China, 1988.

Hassiba, KJ. and Amani, M. (2013): The Effect of Salinity on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud under High Pressures and Temperatures for Drilling Offshore and Deep Wells, Earth Science Research; Vol. 2, 1.

Hillscher, L.W. and Clements, W.R. (1982) High-Temperature Drilling Fluid for Geothermal and Deep Sensitive Formations”. Conference  Proceedings of California Regional Meeting, San Francisco.

Husssain H. Al-Kayiem et al. (2010): Simulation of the Cuttings Cleaning During the Drilling Operation. Ameican Journal of Applied Science 7(6), p 800-806.

Jamal Nasser, Anna Jesil, Tariq Mohiuddin, Majid Al Ruqeshi, Geetha Davi, Shahjahan Mohataram (2013): Experimental Investigation of Drilling Fluid Performance as Nanoparticles. World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, 2013, 3, 57-61.

Kumapayi Yomi, Bello Kelani, Adekomaya Olufemi Akintola Abidemi, Dala Joshua, Mohammed Ismail, OlafuyiOlakekan (2014) Investigating the Effects of Contaminants on the Performance of Oil Based Inverted Emulsion Drilling Fluid, Petroleum Technology Development Journal. Vol. 2, pp 60-74.

Magcobar, D. (1997) Drilling Fluid Engineering Manual. M-I L.L.C.

Moussa, M.M. (1985) Dynamic Measurement of Drilling Fluid Rheology at Elevated Temperature and Pressure”. Conference Proceedings of Middle East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition, Bahrain.

Olufemi. A. Adekomaya, Olalekan Olafuyi: an experimental study of the effect of contaminants on the flow properties of oil based drilling mud. Journal of Petroleum & Coal 53(4)315-319, 2011.

Serpen, U., Haciislamoglu, M. and Tuna, O. (1992): Use of Sepiolite Resources of Turkey in geothermal Muds. Conference Proceedings of  9th International Petroleum Congress of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey,

Serpen, U. (1999) Use of Sepiolite Clay and Other Minerals for Developing Geothermal Drilling Fluids”. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering.

Serpen, U. (2000) Investigation on Geothermal Drilling Muds with High Temperature Stability. Proceedings of World Geothermal Congress, Kyushu-Tohuku, Japan, 2000.

Zilch, H.E., Otto, M.J. and Pye, D.S. (1991): The Evolution of Geothermal Drilling Fluid in the Imperial Valley.  Proceedings of Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach.

CSN Team.

Enter your email address:

Delivered by TMLT NIGERIA

Join Over 500,000+ Readers Online Now!



COPYRIGHT WARNING! Contents on this website may not be republished, reproduced, redistributed either in whole or in part without due permission or acknowledgement. All contents are protected by DMCA.
The content on this site is posted with good intentions. If you own this content & believe your copyright was violated or infringed, make sure you contact us at [[email protected]] to file a complaint and actions will be taken immediately.

Comments are closed.