Attitude To And Practice of Menstrual Hygiene Among Female Senior Secondary School Students In Udenu Local Government Area, Enugu State.

Filed in Articles by on July 13, 2022

Attitude To And Practice of Menstrual Hygiene Among Female Senior Secondary School Students In Udenu Local Government Area, Enugu State.


The purpose of the study was to determine the negative and positive attitude to and practice of menstrual hygiene among senior female secondary school students in Udenu local government area, Enugu state.

To achieve the purpose of the study, ten specific objectives with corresponding research questions were posed and two hypotheses postulated. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study.

The population for the study consisted of 7680 senior female secondary school students while stratified sampling procedure was used to draw a sample of 384 students used for the study.

The instrument for data collection was 40 item researcher’s designed questionnaire. The research questions were answered using means and percentages while null hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square statistics at .05 level of significance.

The following results were obtained. Attitude towards personal hygiene (f = 19.894, P=.000<.05) attitude towards selection of menstrual absorbents (f=28.675, P =.000< .05), Attitude towards disposal (F =10.736, P =. 000< .05) and attitude towards storage of menstrual absorbents (F=11.461, P =.000<.05).

The P- values were lesser than .05 level of significance at 2 and 283 degrees of freedom.

For the practices: practices towards personal hygiene (X2= 127.5,6, P=.000), selection of menstrual absorbents (X2=17.917 P=.000), disposal (X2 =97.292, P=. 000) and storage (X2= 42.965, p =. 000) with their corresponding P- values which are lesser than .05 level of significance at 8 degrees of freedom.

Major findings show that age has major effects on the attitudes and practices of menstrual hygiene among senior female secondary students.

It was recommended by the researcher that government should expand and intensify education on menstrual hygiene so as curb these negative attitudes and practices towards menstruation.

It was also recommended that appropriate waste disposal facilities such as toilets and incinerator should be provided especially in schools to ensure adequate menstrual waste disposal.


Title page           i

Approval page          ii

Certification          iii

Dedication           iv

Acknowledgement            v

Table of content          vi

List of table           viii

Appendices           ix

Abstract           x

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction      

Background to the Study        1

Statement of the Problem        9

Purpose of the Study          10

Research Questions          11

Hypotheses           12

Significance of the Study         12

Scope of the Study          15

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature     

Conceptual Framework          16

Menstrual hygiene.        16

Components of menstrual hygiene.      20

Attitude.           27

Practice.           31

Senior Secondary Students.       32

Socio-demographic factors associated with menstrual hygiene.   32

Theoretical Framework         36

Health belief model.         36

Theory of reasoned action (TRA).                            37

Theory of planned behaviour.       37

Review of Empirical Studies        40

Summary of Literature Review        47

CHAPTER THREE: Methods      

Research Design          49

Area of the Study          49

Population for the Study         50

Sample and Sampling Technique         50

Instrument for Data Collection        51

Validity of the Instrument        51

Reliability of the Instrument        52

Method of Data Collection         52

Method of Data Analysis         52

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion  Results           54

Summary of  Major Findings         73

Discussions          75

Attitude of senior female secondary school students towards  75 menstrual hygiene.

Practice of senior female secondary school students towards menstrual  Hygiene         77

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary           81

Conclusion           83

Recommendations         85

Suggestion for Further Studies       86

References           87

Appendices           93


Background to the Study

Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to all females. The onset of menstruation represents a landmark even in pubertal development of the adolescent girl.

Menstruation a natural process in a woman’s life needs special care from physical and psychological point of view.

Menstrual hygiene management is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged and has not received adequate attention from any quarter of the society (Arkutu, 1995).

Menstruation and the menstrual cycle are characterized by variability in volume, pattern and regularities, which at the earlier stages of the development of the adolescent can create emotional discomfort particularly to the poorly informed girl (Nair, 2011).

The challenge of providing special facilities for girls reaching puberty is a question far removed from the authorities. The lack of policy in this regard is a major hurdle.

Unfortunately, authorities have not yet realized the fact that lack of facilities in school can force girls to remain absent from schools and in the other hand, it would cause infectious diseases.


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