Competency Improvement Needs of Farmers in Soil Conservation in Kogi State

Filed in Articles by on July 3, 2022

Competency Improvement Needs of Farmers in Soil Conservation in Kogi State.


The study focused on the identification of competency improvement needs of farmers in soil conservation practices in Kogi State.

Seven research questions were developed and answered in line with what the study sought to find out.  Six null hypotheses were formulated and tested at the probability of 0.05 level of significance and 532 degrees of freedom.

The study made use of survey research design.  A questionnaire was developed from the review of related literature and used for collecting data for the study.

The questionnaire was face-validated by three experts and tested for reliability using Cronbach’s alpha method with a coefficient of 0.91.

The questionnaire was used to collect data from five hundred and forty (540) respondents made up of three hundred and thirty (330) Registered Crop Farmers and two hundred and ten (210) Agricultural Extension Agents.

The data collected for the study were analyzed using weighted mean, standard deviation and Improvement Needed Index (INI) to answer the research questions and t-test statistic was used to test the null hypotheses of no significant difference.

The findings of the study indicated that six (6) modules and their corresponding 316 competencies were needed by farmers for soil conservation practices.


Title Page               i

Approval Page          ii

Certification          iii

Dedication      iv

Acknowledgement      v

Table of Contents       vi

Abstract      viii


1.1     Background to the Problem              1

1.2     Statement of the Problem …  4

1.3     Objectives of the Study    …    6

1.4     Significance of the Study  …     7

1.5     Scope and Limitations of the Study       8


2.1     Literature Review               9

2.1.1  Public Sector Employment in Nigeria     10

2.1.2  Actors in Public Sector Labour Relations in Nigeria       14

2.1.3  Rights and Institutional Structures for the Enforcement of the Rights of the Parties      20

2.2     Hypotheses …      32

2.3     Operationalization of Key Concepts          32

2.4     Methodology …       34

2.4.1  Research Design         34

2.4.2  Population of Study        34

2.4.3  Sample and Sampling Techniques      35

2.4.4  Instruments of Data Collection          35

2.4.5  Validation of the Instruments         35

2.4.6  Reliability of the Instruments    35

2.4.7  Method of Data Collection …      35

2.4.8  Methods of Data Analysis        36

2.5     Theoretical Framework      36


3.1     Background Information on Enugu State of Nigeria …              42

3.2     Politics of Public Sector Recruitment in Enugu State …            46

3.3     Conflicts and Conflict Resolution in Enugu State Public

Sector Labour Relations              54


4.1     Data Analysis/Findings         71

4.2     Discussion of the Findings           73


  • Summary …                75
  • Conclusion …       77
  • Recommendations …        78


APPENDICES        83


Industrial relations is concerned with the study of the interactive relationship among the three principal actors in a work environment.

The actors are the management, labour and the government and their respective organizations and agencies  Dunlop (1971) posited that industrial relations is concerned with the workers and their organizations, managers (representing the employers) and their organizations and the governmental agencies concerned with the workplace and work community.

The interactions lead to the establishment of rules governing their relationships.  Hence the focus of industrial relations generally and the public sector labour relations in particular is on the collaborative determination of the terms of the contract of employment, rights of the parties, interpretation, review and procedures for conflict resolution in the workplace.

It includes the roles of the government which must, of necessity, intervene in the overall interest of the contracting parties and the general public.

In the public sector, government is the sole employer.  It does this directly or through its agencies.  In this respect, the government exercises its executive, legislature and judicial sovereign powers to impact on labour/management relations.

Elekwa (1991) puts the point more vividly thus “;;; in the public sector, the government defines itself as the superior through the use of sovereign doctrine.  The management of industrial relations in the public sector is complex because the government plays the dual roles of an employer and a conciliator”.


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