Evaluation of Millet Starches(Pennisetum Glaucum And Pennisetum  Americanum) as Tablet Binders And Disintegrants

Filed in Articles by on June 26, 2022

Evaluation of Millet Starches(Pennisetum  Glaucum and Pennisetum  Americanum) as Tablet Binders and Disintegrants.


Starch was extracted from the two varieties of millet (Pennisetum glaucum and Pennisetum americanum) by the wet extraction method, the percentage yield was determined.

The physicochemical properties investigated includes: flow rate, angle of repose, carr’s index, tapped density, bulk density, moisture content, swelling capacity, particle size, solubility, iodine test, and hausner ratio.

Granules were prepared by the wet granulation method of massing and screening using the two varieties of millet starches as disintegrants and binders in one formulation and comparing their physicochemical properties with that of maize starch BP.

Paracetamol tablets were formulated using Pennisetum glaucum and Pennisetum americanum starch  as binder and disintegrant compared with maize starch and  studying the tableting properties of the tablets produced.

The percentage yields of starch from the two varieties of  millet  were found to be 50% for Pennisetum glaucum and 56.8% for Pennisetum americanum. The two starches have similar flow, swelling, power and moisture sorption properties.

The suitability of millet starches as binders and disintegrants at various concentrations were investigated  in  tablet formulations using paracetamol  as  the  medicinal  substances.

The  millet  starches (Pennisetum glaucum and Pennisetum americanum) formulations were compared for hardness, friability, disintegration  time  against  maize  starch formulations.

Using the same concentrations of binders and disintegrants. The results indicated that millet starches were suitable binders and Disintegrants.


Tablets are solid dosage forms containing drug substances with or without suitable diluents and prepared either by compression or molding methods.

They have been in widespread use since the later part of the 19th century and their popularity continues, because it offers a means of repeatedly administering accurate dose of drug, is easy to use by the patient, readily amenable to dispensing and less expensive to manufacture than other dosage forms.(Rudnic and Schwartz,1999)

Tablets are formulated to release the active ingredients in a way that will achieve the desired effect, and their quality is controlled by a number of standard tests which may include uniformity of weight and content, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution.

In addition to the active ingredients, tablets contain a number of excipients. They may be classified according to the part they play in the finished tablet.

The first group contains those which help to impart satisfactory processing and compression characteristics to the formulation.

These include diluents, binders, glidants and lubricants. The second group of added substances helps to give additional desirable physical characteristics to the finished products.

Included in this group are disintegrants, colourants, and in the case of chewable tablets, flavours and sweetening agents and in the case of controlled-release tablets, polymers or waxes or other solubility retarding materials.


Akande, O.F. (1988). Evaluation of millet starch as tablet binder and disintegrant. MSc Thesis submitted to Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.
Apeji, Y.E.(2010).Tableting properties Microcrystalline Starch derived from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch by Enzymatic Hydrolysis using α-amylase Enzyme. MSc Thesis submitted to Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Nigeria.
Bangudu, A.B. (1982). “Some factors affecting the compression characteristics of paracetamol tablets”. Nig. J. Pharm. 13(6), pp 30-34.
British Pharmacopoeia (1988), Vol. I and II University Press Cambridge. British Pharmacopoeia(2002),Vol.I and II University Press Cambridge .
Camphel,D.I.and Theivagt,J.G.(1958),Determination of Drug Release from Gradual release Preparations. Drug standard 26,73-76.

CSN Team.

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